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Nội dung và yêu cầu cần giải quyết trong bài tập luận văn tốt nghiệp. lý thuyết, thực hành, số liệu cần tính toán và bản vẽ). Yêu cầu phải hoàn thành trước ngày 10 tháng 7 năm 2010 Nhận bài tập tự học được giao bài tập tự học. Đánh giá chất lượng của luận văn tốt nghiệp trên các phương diện thu thập và phân tích tài liệu, số liệu ban đầu, giá trị lý luận và thực tiễn của đề tài.

In the process of making the thesis, I have faced not only many problems in lexicology, reference materials, but also difficulties in choosing the right way to express my ideas. However, I have received a lot of guidance, assistance and enthusiasm from my supervisor - Mai Van Sao. My sincere thanks also go to other teachers from the Foreign Language Department, Haiphong Private University for their previous supportive lectures as well as their dedicated help and advice during my thesis.

Last but far from least, I would like to thank my family and many of my friends for their encouragement, inspiration in the process of completing this paper.

Rationale of the study

As a result, I decide to do "a study on written structures, personal pronouns, expressions of decisions and attitudes in business correspondence" in the hope that students who share the same difficulties in performing these skills will have a different perspective on this work. . I would like to contribute and share my little knowledge and experience in the composition and translation of Business Correspondence with all the students of the Department of English and the Department of Economics, even with people who work for companies.

Aims of the study

Scopes of the study

Methods of the study

Design of the study

Written structures (Kinds of sentence)

  • Definitions
  • Kinds of sentence
  • Sentence and utterance
  • Politeness

The meaning of a sentence is not the sum of the meanings of the words used in the sentence. It is more correct to consider it as the function of the meanings of the words used in the sentence, modality and structural meanings indicated by the way in which words are organized in a sentence. We find it appropriate to give the following definition to the aims of the study: "A sentence is the largest unit of grammatical organization within which parts of speech (e.g. nouns, verbs, adverbs, adjectives...) and grammatical classes (eg : . word, phrase, clause) are said to function, normally contain one independent clause, can be said to be the ideal string words behind various realizations in utterance and inscriptions”.

For the purposes of the study, sentence types are performed according to the communicative function. This definition of politeness will help us choose the main tasks and solve the materials effectively to achieve the objectives of the study. Willingness (Chỉ sự tự nguyện): on the part of the speaker in the 2nd and 3rd, limited use.

For the purposes of the study, we will focus on auxiliaries and modal auxiliaries.

Personal pronoun

Decision and attitude expressions (Modality)

Overview of Commercial Correspondence

  • Definitions
    • Correspondence
    • Commercial Correspondence
  • Forms of Commercial Correspondence
  • Types of Commercial Correspondence
  • Politeness in Commercial Correspondence

Commercial correspondence consists of many different forms and each form has its advantage: letter, memorandum, e-mail, fax, telephone call, voice mail, video conference, meeting...etc. The header (sender's address) (written in the upper right corner) The inside address. written on the left margin, after the heading). The closure (written at the right margin) The date (written at the right margin) The signature (written at the right margin) Other parts. written in the left margin).

To see the elements of commercial correspondence in English and Vietnamese, consider the following letters as examples. At the beginning of March this year, we took delivery of one of your laser color separation machines LS 500 under order no. The breakdowns resulted in the loss of 12 days of production time while we waited for your local agents to repair the machine.

Above are two different commercial correspondences of the two languages, where we can clearly see the differences in form between English and Vietnamese business letters. Therefore, it is important to use them appropriately in both the situation and the needs of your reader. They certainly have many characteristics in common, but there are still some defining characteristics between them.

Within the scope of this study, the researcher cannot analyze in detail all subtypes of commercial correspondence as mentioned above. What is focused on in this study is that written structures, personal pronoun, decision and attitude expressions in all types of Commercial Correspondence; some strategies to compile and translate it. Alexander [5: 19], the five main criteria of a business letter (beginning with "C") in English: Clear (rõ đếng), Complete (hoàn tại), Concise (súc tích), Courteous (lịch sự) and Correct ( correct).

In these criteria, courtesy is an important criterion in all types of business correspondence and in business communication. Avoid using non-standard words such as slang, slang...etc or colloquial words such as kids, boy, a lot, dude...etc; contractions such as not being able to, not wanting to, not being allowed...etc; abbreviated words such as photo, TV...etc; imperative like remembering...etc.


Overview of sentence kinds in Commercial Correspondence

In general, according to the chart and the table above, we find that the percentage of sentence types used is very uneven. The statement is a sentence type that is mostly used in both selected letter groups (occupying 74.2% to 79%). The reasons for the inequality are the characteristics and effects that business letters bring in the communication process.

Sentence kinds in Commercial Correspondence of English in comparison

  • Statement
  • Question
  • Command
  • Exclamation

However, in some cases an assertive statement consists of "no or not or yet" in the form of "negation of negation" or "double negation". top-level assertion). By choosing this kind, composers run out of patience and can't keep a "face" because partners are in business for lack of reliability for them:. In the two selected groups, the negative statement is mainly used in group 2 (letters written in Vietnamese), partly in group 1 (letters written in English).

As mentioned generally in the previous chapter, when expressing the dubious opinions and doubts: In Vietnamese, writers often use interrogative pronouns: "ai, gì, nău, thến nău, bao hạn..."; sentimental words at the end of the sentence: "à, nhật, nhé, hả, hở..."; or adjuncts instead of interrogative pronouns: "có...(hay) không. However, it is very interesting that questions that have interrogative values ​​(requesting information) are not big in the survey. So writers use only in the obligatory situations, especially when coming to an agreement on price, origin before signing a contract or asking about the reasons for transport and shipment when goods are missing.

In the selected letters, almost questions are used to show the other derived illocutionary force, in general, to make a request to partners, hardly to show the direct illocutionary force:. In Vietnamese, we can use command words that represent the pronunciation of a sentence: "hãy, đừng, chớ, nên, không được..." ; or copulatives: "nào, đi, nhé..." at the end of the sentence; or single words: "đề nghị, yêu cầu, mong, xin..." in the ability to play verbs at the beginning of a sentence. Because command has the direct illocutionary force, it is often used with an alteration (biểu thức điều biến) to guarantee a politeness, such as "please" in English, "kính mong", "xin"... in English Vietnamese.

No. 14 Group 1) In order to get the wishes or desires, in the selected business letters we mostly find that writers use questions with command values ​​or direct command words. No. 19 Group 1) In addition to "please", in the business letters, the writer also uses "hope" to express an instruction. In the group of letters written in Vietnamese, expressions are more diversified: mong, để nầi, xin, xin đầu, hy được.

Through the research and analysis, we find that command is mostly used in the selected letters, but with a small volume. Exclamation in Vietnamese, exclamation words (ôi, chao ôi, ồ, ô hay, than ôi, trời ôi, trời đất ơi…) play a clear role in attitudes and sentiment expressions.

A study on personal pronoun in Commercial Correspondence

  • The system of personal pronouns in the salutation
    • The system of personal pronouns in the salutation of letters written in
    • The system of personal pronouns in the salutation of letters written in
  • The system of personal pronouns in the body
    • The system of personal pronouns in the body of letters written in
    • The system of personal pronouns in the body of letters written in
  • Modality in letters written in English
  • Modality in letters written in Vietnamese

In the selected letters written in English, writers can use: personal name, special pronoun, title and occupation. The above diagram shows that personal name is generally an important means of address in the salutation of business letters. We can conclude that personal names and special pronouns are often used in the greeting.

During the study, in the preamble of letters written in English, there is none. address himself" of authors, is only "address partner", but that in Vietnamese, there are both of them:. By studying the system of personal pronouns in the preamble, we can see that the choice of the forms of address depends on culture and habits of language use During the research we see that most of the personal pronouns in the body are neutral pronouns: the first person (I, We), the second person (You).

Trong các bức thư kinh doanh, người viết đại diện cho công ty của họ - một cộng đồng để nói chuyện với khách hàng về những mối quan tâm chung của họ. Sau khi xem ảnh của các quý ông, tôi hơi bối rối về một trong số họ - nó trông giống như một chiếc hộp màu xám trong khi lẽ ra nó phải là màu đen.). name” xuất hiện chủ yếu trong các chữ cái tiếng Anh được viết bởi người Việt Nam:. Từ biểu đồ và bảng ta thấy hệ thống đại từ nhân xưng trong thân bài được chia thành hai ngôi: ngôi thứ nhất (58,4%) và ngôi thứ hai (41,6%), nay là ngôi thứ ba.

By studying the system of personal pronouns in the greeting and in the body, personal pronoun often occupies an important role in letters, especially in a business letter. Can/will” expresses a temporary intention and will, or an action that will happen in the future. No. 6 Group 1) From the above examples we can see that "really" is independent, "friendly". always goes with "please".

Over the past few weeks, there have been a number of electrical circuit and floor covering faults that have been particularly dangerous for our customers. The above auxiliary and modal adjuncts are used to express modality in the business letters we are studying. However, the modality is used quite little in letters written in Vietnamese, especially in commercial correspondence, and its good effects are not very significant.

No. 9 Group 2) Modality in letters in Vietnamese (written language) is not presented as differently as in daily conversation (spoken language).



  • Solutions
  • Teaching and learning proposals
  • Some suggestions for further research

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