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Nội dung và yêu cầu cần giải quyết trong nhiệm vụ luận văn. lý thuyết, thực hành, số liệu tính toán và hình vẽ). Đánh giá chất lượng của luận án trên phương diện thu thập và phân tích tài liệu, số liệu ban đầu, giá trị lý luận và thực tiễn của đề tài.





  • Rationales
  • Aims of study
  • Method of the study
  • Design of the study

To complete this study, I collect material, references to analyze and identify the similarities and differences of conditional sentences between the two languages. Analyze students' difficulties in using English conditional sentences given that you have been a student at HPU for 4 years.


THEORETICAL BACKGROUND 1.1. Definition of English sentence

  • Types of English sentence
    • Simple sentence
    • Compound-complex sentence
  • MOOD
    • Concept of Mood
    • Types of Mood
  • g. My father suggested that my cousin stay with us
  • g. God save the Queen!

The verb is the main point of the predicate - it expresses action or a state of being. For example: The Webster's New World Dictionary, Elementary Edition defines mood as: “the form of the verb that indicates whether it expresses a fact (demonstrative), a wish or possibility (subjunctive), or a command (imperative). mood).,.


Definition of English conditional sentence

A Semantic overview of conditional sentences

  • Factual Conditional Sentences
  • Future (or Predictive) Conditional Sentences
  • Hypothetical Conditional Sentences
  • SYNTACTIC ANALYSIS OF CONDITIONAL SENTENCES 1.Subordinating Conjunction in Conditional Sentences

However, the implied factual inference differs from the other two types in that "when" or "when" cannot replace "if" without changing the meaning and often makes the sentence ungrammatical. The express conditional resembles the implicit conditional in that both refer to specific time-limited events or states are “if clauses.” But sometimes the future outcome expressed in the result clause is not certain enough to warrant the use of “will” or “to go”.

We can also weaken the condition expressed in the if clause of these kinds of conditional sentences by using the modal "should" or the verb. Marianne Celce Murcia and Diane Lesen-Freeman: "A hypothetical conditional expresses improbable yet possible events or states in the "if clause". In the past the hypothetical meaning is more absolute than in the present, the sense is "contrary to the fact" or in some books this kind of conditional sentence is called "counterfactual conditionals" (i.e. they express impossible events or states in the "if" clause").

In the present, the meaning is not so much "contrary to fact" as "contrary to assumption".

  • Subject/ Auxiliary inversion in conditionals
  • Ordering of clauses in Conditional Sentences
    • Type 1-Real Conditional Sentence or open conditional sentences Definition

Through a semantic review, we can better understand the different types of conditional sentences. SYNTAX ANALYSIS OF THE CONDITIONAL SENTENCE 2.3.1.Subordinating conjunction in the conditional sentence 2.3.1.Subordinating conjunction in the conditional sentence. Conditional sentences often consist of at least two clauses: a main clause and a condition clause.

But the use of "then" in a conditional sentence is often applied when the result clause is a deduction drawn from the circumstances expressed in the "if clause". In addition to the most common conditional link "if", we can have many others: unless, provided, provided (that), as long as, provided that, even if, suppose, or...or, if only, as if, as if, just in case, otherwise,. If + subject + auxiliary verb can be replaced in formal English by inversion of auxiliary verb and subject omitting "if".

In many books, conditional sentences are divided into 2 main types: Real and unreal conditional sentences.

Randolph Quirk (1972) "The condition leaves unresolved the question of the fulfillment or non-fulfillment of the condition and therefore also the truth of the statement expressed by the main clause".

If he stands at the front of the bus (now), he waits for his sister to return from school.

If the car is not in the garage, he went (this is a logical conclusion) - If + present perfect + present perfect - If + present perfect + present perfect.

  • General past
  • Future
  • Type II- Unreal Conditional Sentence or Hypothetical Condition Definition
    • Hypothetical condition referring to the future time
  • Hypothetical condition referring to the future time

If he would not have done it, I would have willingly paid him (but he was not willing). If + past simple + past modal perfect (for stative verbs, especially where the state continues past the time of the action). If + Semi-subjunctive + modal perfect ("was" can replace "were" for conditions that are impossible conditions at the time of the action).

If you had told me, I wouldn't be standing here now (but I am because you didn't tell me) you didn't tell me). If he had known, he would have told you (I'm not sure if he knew or not, or if he told you).

  • RELATED FORMS .1. Hope and wish

The verb "hope" is often used to indicate something that may have happened or may happen (i.e. it is similar to future or predictive conditions). The verb "wish" is often used to indicate something that has definitely not happened or definitely won't happen. We wish they could come (they don't come) We wish they had come yesterday (they didn't come).

  • However (late etc)/ No matter how (late etc) This subordinator is also one of conditional links

However (late, etc.)/ No matter how (late, etc.) This subordinate is also one of conditional links: This subordinate is also one of conditional links:.

  • Otherwise
  • As if/ as though
  • Unless
  • If only
  • Providing; provided (that); as/ so long as
  • On condition that
  • Even if
  • Supposing/ suppose

In Vietnamese, conditional sentences are not a big problem and are not often mentioned in Vietnamese grammars. Before making a comparison between conditionals in English and Vietnamese, I would like to present a brief summary of Vietnamese conditional sentences. Some Vietnamese grammar authors consider the Vietnamese conditional sentence to be a separate section in their grammars.

Ngoài một số tác giả như Hoàng Trọng Phiên, Nguyễn Kim Thản trong “Ngữ pháp tiếng Việt” đưa ra định nghĩa về câu điều kiện: “Câu điều kiện là câu phức thường có hai mệnh đề, quan hệ giữa hai mệnh đề là điều kiện và kết quả của mệnh đề này. Mệnh đề đầu tiên đưa ra điều kiện, mệnh đề thứ hai đưa ra kết quả hoặc hậu quả”. Nhưng trong một tình huống đặc biệt, thậm chí cả "if" và "then" đều có thể được lược bỏ trong câu điều kiện tiếng Việt.

This makes foreign students confused when they learn Vietnamese conditional sentences, even with Vietnamese students.

He analyzed each pair of conditional links in great detail, which can help the reader to better understand Vietnamese conditional sentences. The structure “Hễ….thì….” print the only result matching the condition, so we cannot print other results matching other conditions in the same context. So in Vietnamese we never say “Hễ troi chom mua thi dem ngay quan ao vao con he troi nang thi cu phoi day.

This structure is basically for "Hễ….là...", it cannot express an imperative, but it reflects dynamic relationship between the condition and the result. In this structure, the condition and the result are also contrary to the fact that has actually happened or will definitely happen. Phai chi ngay mai ong Ba khong di Ha Noi ma co mat voi chung ta thi hay qua.

The assumption here is that Mr. Ba will go to Ha Noi tomorrow, while his trip to Ha Noi might have been postponed.

  • The comparison between English Conditional Sentence and Vietnamese Conditional Sentence
    • The similarities between English and Vietnamese conditional sentences

Chúng tôi mời một số người đến bữa tiệc, nhưng cuối cùng không ai đáp lại, sau đó nhóm của chúng tôi đi cùng nhau.

General factual and common factual conditions in English and Vietnamese can use "when" and "whenever" to replace "if" and it still expresses the meaning before.

As English conditional sentences and what I present in "Vietnamese conditional sentences", "If clause" in "a" is more emphatic than "b". Although, the verb in the "if clause" of future conditionals refers to the time in the future that is used in simple present, not in future tense that applies in English and Vietnamese conditional sentences. I will stay at home if it is going to rain.(wrong) I will stay at home if it is raining. Right) I will stay at home if it rains.

  • The differences between English and Vietnamese conditional sentence

First, I would like to give here below some English conditional sentences and their translation into Vietnamese to see their structural differences. English uses a system of tenses and modals to express conditions, while Vietnamese uses a system of connectives to express them. Due to the invariant truth value, the English generic factual conditionals can take a simple present tense in both the "if clause" and the main clause, but in Vietnamese, the simple future tense in the main clause is more preferable.

With imaginative (or hypothetical) conditional sentences, the differences between the two languages ​​are quite clear. In English conditional sentences, the subjunctive from of the verb in the "if clause" itself makes you recognize that a conditional sentence is hypothetical. The form of the present or past conditional in the main clause will confirm is additional.

Nhưng về vấn đề hiến pháp, chúng tôi đồng ý, bởi vì nếu chúng tôi chia rẽ, họ sẽ sụp đổ. Nhưng đối với họ, chúng ta nên có thủy tinh không thể phá vỡ, thép không thể phá vỡ, các loại vật liệu không thể phá hủy. Không có chúng, chúng ta sẽ có thủy tinh không thể phá vỡ, thép không thể phá vỡ, tất cả các loại vật liệu không thể phá hủy.

Nếu không có viên đá của Medoto, cây thương của Temas vẫn còn mới tinh, sạch sẽ và chưa được thử nghiệm.


  • Common mistakes made by Vietnamese learners
  • Suggested solution
  • Choose the correct form
  • Complete these sentences
  • Match columns A and B to make grammatically correct and meaningful sentences
  • Write hypothetical or counterfactual conditional sentences from the following true situations
  • Say whether the following sentences are right or wrong. If wrong, correct them
    • If he made a promise, I will keep it
  • Choose the right word to go in each sentence
  • Write hypothetical or counterfactual conditional sentences from the following true situations
  • Say whether the following sentences are right or wrong. If wrong, correct them
    • If he made a promise, I would keep it

In the generic factual and habitual factual conditional sentences, "if" can be replaced by "when" or "whenever". They also often make mistakes when using "if" and "in case" because they don't know the difference between them. Conditional sentences in English are also a confusing problem for the students, they don't know how to use them.

So the students should actively do the exercise on the English conditional sentences to overcome these difficulties. Students may encounter the problems of verb tenses and modals in English conditional sentences because there is a big difference between English and Vietnamese conditional structures. English conditional sentences are very complicated in structure, function and meaning, so my thesis focused on these aspects.

Write hypothetical or counterfactual conditional sentences from the following true situations.

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