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Rationale of the study

Aims of the study

The study on translation of terms and conditions in an international business contract provided an overview of translation strategies and procedures commonly used in the translation of terms in international business contracts.

Scope of the study

Method of the study

Design of the study

Part one is the Introduction in which Reason of the study, Objectives of the study, Scope of the study, Method of the study, Design of the study are presented. Chapter four is some problems Vietnamese learners encounter when translating delivery terms into business contracts and some proposed solutions.


Definitions of translation

Translation provides an equivalent of the thought behind its various verbal expressions. Translation should be understood as a process in which a message expressed in a particular source language is linguistically transformed so that it can be understood by readers of the target language. Translation is the transformation of the original text in one language into equivalent content of the message and the formal characteristics and role of the original.

Translation is the transfer of the meaning of a text into another language in the way the author intended. Translation consists of reproducing in the receiving language the closest natural equivalent of the source language message, firstly in terms of meaning and secondly in terms of style.

Translation types

The main use of this method is either to understand the mechanics behind the source language or to interpret a difficult text as a pre-translation process. The grammatical SL constructions are converted to their closest TL equivalent, but the lexical items are again translated out of context. It attempts to reproduce the precise contextual meaning of the original within the constraint of TL grammatical structures.

It tries to be completely faithful to the intention and textual realization of the SL writer. It differs from a faithful translation only in that it has to take more into account the aesthetic value of the SL text, compromising on meaning where appropriate so that no assonance, pun or repetition disturbs the final version. A free translation means that the translation is not close to the original, but the translator just conveys the meaning of SL in his own words.

Idiomatic translation is used for colloquial language and idioms, whose literalism is the translation by which the translator does not transfer the literalism of the original, uses the translation of colloquial language and idiom. It tries to reproduce the exact contextual meaning of the original in such a way that both language and content are easily acceptable and understandable to the readers.”...But even here the translator must still respect and work with the form of the source language text as the only material basis for his work .

Translation equivalence

  • Definition of translation equivalence
  • Types of equivalence in translation

Nida argued that there are two different types of equivalence, namely formal equivalence, which Nida and Taber call formal correspondence in the second edition, and dynamic equivalence. Formal correspondence "focuses attention on the message itself, both in form and content", unlike dynamic equivalence, which is based on the "principle of equivalent effect". In the second edition (1982) or their work, both theorists provide a more detailed explanation of each type of equivalence.

Denotative equivalence: The words SL and TL refer to the same thing in the real world. Connotative equivalence: This type of equivalence provides additional value and is achieved through the translator's choice of synonymous words or expressions. Normative textual equivalence: SL and TL words are used in the same or similar context in their respective languages.

Pragmatic equivalence: With the reader orientation, the SL and TL words have the same effect on their respective readers. Formal equivalence: this type of equivalence produces an analogy of form in the translation by either exploiting formal possibilities of the TL or creating new forms in the TL.

Translation of ESP

  • Type of ESP
  • Delivery terms in ESP translation
  • Definition of an international business contract
  • The main content of an international business contract
    • The representation
    • Terms and conditions

The language of international air traffic control can be considered "special", in the sense that the repertoire required of the controller is strictly limited and can be precisely defined, as might be the language needs of a dining room waiter or air. madam. The terms of delivery distribute between the seller and the buyer the logistical and administrative costs at different stages of the process. The terms of delivery also determine who is responsible for packaging, marking, handling operations, loading and unloading, inspection of the goods.

Therefore, it is impossible to compare a complete translation that captures the meaning of the source language of the international business contract. The legal document is the sales contract, which must be written according to the form of the international business organization. An international contract, also called import-export contract or foreign trade contract, is an agreement between two parties from different countries, hereafter called the exporter (seller) and the importer (buyer), about specific goods.

Place and song date of the contract can usually be written at the top of the contract. Or "The present contract was made and entered into in Hanoi on June 20, 1998 by and between". In many cases, the venue and song date are written at the end of the contract.

For example: "The present contract was made in Hanoi on June 20, 1998 in quadruplicates of equal force, two of which are kept by each party". In practice, the terms and conditions in an international business contract were written as a few minor terms. Warranty is the seller's certainty about the quality of goods in a certain time, the so-called warranty period.

Force majeure is a common term in contracts that excepts a party to carry out the responsibility or obligation when an extraordinary event or circumstance beyond the control of the parties, such as a war, strike, riot, crime or an event described by the legal term " Act of God" (eg floods, earthquakes, volcanic eruptions). In the event that the performance of this contract is prevented or delayed in whole or in part by war, revolution, riot, strike or other labor dispute, fire, flood, typhoon or other causes beyond the control of the parties, the parties shall not be responsible for failure to perform whole or part of this contract, provided that immediate notice of said delay shall perform such obligation with all obligation with all due speed unless the contract is earlier terminated. In case of dispute, and if the parties cannot reach an amicable settlement or any claim related to this contract within 80 days from its entry, the case will be transferred to the International Arbitration Center of the Chamber of Commerce and Industry of Vietnam for final decision in under the rules of mediation and arbitration of the International Chamber of Commerce.

Delivery terms

  • The main content of delivery terms
    • Time of delivery
    • Place of delivery
    • The delivery method
    • Notice of delivery
  • Basic delivery terms
    • Purpose of Basic delivery terms
    • Incoterms 2000
  • Contract No.PN-DV-070928
  • Contract No.0909-02
  • Contract No.S01161.000

The final delivery is a confirmation of fulfillment of the seller's delivery obligation regarding quantity, quality and delivery time. The basic terms of delivery regulate the principle bases of delivery between the seller and the buyer. Determine who is responsible for packaging, labeling, handling, loading and unloading, inspection of goods.

To confirm and establish the respective obligations for fulfilling the formalities of export and import, the payment of the duties and taxes of import, as well as the sending of the documents. To determine the critical point of the transfer of risks from the seller to the buyer in the process of shipping the goods. To divide the logistics and administrative costs between the seller and the buyer at the different stages of the process.

Incoterms 2000 takes into account the recent proliferation of customs-free zones, the increasing use of electronic communications in business transactions and changing transport practices. Incoterms 2000 provides a simpler and clearer presentation of the 13 definitions, all of which have been revised. If knowledge of the readers about trade transaction or business contract is limited, what is the solution.

The verb phrase "to be responsible for" simply indicates the obligations of the Seller or the Buyer. The phrase of cause and reason "as a result of" comes after a string of Noun Phrase - a list of the rights and duties of the parties. However, in this case it is only understood based on the context of the sentence.

If the translator has no or little knowledge about the matter, understanding the meaning of, for example, the terms "FOB" or "ETD", is not entirely simple. First, translators must understand the new terms in the whole content and intent of the text he or she is translating. Second, translators must seek the knowledge about the translation matter in order to understand the concept of the terms and use them correctly.

So, in this requirement, translators must have deep knowledge of both languages ​​he or she is translating to get the equivalent in the target language, because lack of knowledge of both languages ​​will result in translation without logic and sense . Third, translators should avoid the tendency to translate literally, because this will destroy the meaning of the original word and spoil the beauty of the expression.

The language of delivery terms in international business contracts



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