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Mark the letter A, B, C, or D on your answer sheet to indicate the word whose underlined part differs from the other three in pronunciation in each of the following questions.


Sound Structure Example


_a_ Father, garage, enhance/ɪnˈhɑːns/(BrE) /ɪnˈhæns/(AmE) _ar_ guitar, target, garden, departure, star, bizarre, scar, farther _ear_ heart, hearth(family),



parents /ˈperənt/, peasant

Sound Structure Example


_o_(in first syllable) son, done, some, come, month, money, nothing, something, wonderful, other, cover, another, mother, government,…

_oo_ flood, blood

_ou_ touch, double, tough, enough, cousin, couple, rough, trouble, young, country

_ov_ above, love, glove, dove,

_u_ cut, truck, luxury, lucky, bug, ugly _um_ umbrella, slumber, plumber, pump

_un_ unable, understand, fund, fun, run, sun,

_up_ cup, up, hiccup, upgrade, hug, mug, plug, supper

_us_ just, hustle, bus, cluster, bust, hush, must, husband, industry _ut_ utter, clutch, hut, shut, button,


/ɔː/ cough /kɔːf/

/ʊ/ Foot / fʊt/, book /uː/ Food / fuːd/, smooth

/əʊ/ Stove /stəʊv/, shoulder /ˈʃəʊldər/

/aʊ/ doubt

Sound Structure Example

_i_ Pi (= 3.14)

_ibe_ Describe, prescribe, subscribe _ie_ lie, tie, die, pie

_eye_ dye, eye _fly_ butterfly

_ide_ decide, tide, widen, hide, bride _ike_ bike, dislike, hitch-hike,

_ile_ pile, while, file,



_ind behind, blind, wind, bind, _ine_ decline, fine, nine, shine,

_ise_, _ize_ realize, recognize, franchise, wise, advise _ipe_ wipe, ripe,

_ite_ write, bite, kite, polite, finite, white _ive_ drive, survive,

cy_ cycle

_ype_ type _yph typhoon

_y(ending of a word ) fly, why, try, dry, my, by, shy, satisfy, deny, supply, deny

ty_ type

_uy_ buy, guy,

Exception /ə/ recipe/ˈresəpi/ công thc nu ăn

/ɪ/ definite, infinite, examine, determine , typical /ˈtɪpɪkl/

Sound Structure Example


_au_ Gauche

_ou_ trouser, blouse, sprout, foul, out, our, couch, house, doubt, boundary, bounce, shout, noun, count, mountain, round, ground, aloud, about, around,…

_ow_ now, shower, howl, how, owl, cow, town, crowded, brown,…

_own_ down, gown, town, clown

Exception / u:/ mow/mu:/= cut

Sound Structure Example


_ia_ diary, diabetes

_ie_ quiet, science, client, scientist, _ir_ iron

_ire_ fire, hire, entire, wireless, vampire, acquire, desire _yre_ tyre

Sound Structure Example

/aiəe/ _ia_ triangle, diameter,

Sound Structure Example

_ea_ Head, lead/led/, wealthy, healthy, health, spread, read (past participle), feather,



_eb_ web, debt ec_ Ecstasy, special

_ed_ wedding, Wednesday/ wenzdi/, pedal, pedagogy, _ef_ chef, left

_eg_ egg, peg, leg,

_el_ help, overwhelm, shelf, selfish, belt, knelt, felt _ell_ shell, sell, bell, seller, smell

_em_ member, resemble, assemble, embassy

_en_ bench, end, trend, vendor, defend, bend, envelop _ep_ episode, skeptical

_es_ chest, festival, fresh, estimate, western, _et_ kettle,

_ev_ evidence,

Sound Structure Example


_air_ hair, chair, pair, fair,

_are_ bare, care, share, flare, aware, declare, spare _ear_ wear, tear, pear, beard, bear

_eir_ heir người thừa kế

Sound Structure Example


_ai_ wait, straight, bait, rain, gain, fainted, paint, maiden, maid, braid, daily _ache_ headache, stomachache, backache,

_ade_ fade, spade, homemade, glade, shade _ake_ awake, lake, cake, take, earthquake _ape_ tape, shape,

_ase_ chase, vase, phrase,

_ate_ plate, ate, fate, hate, formulate, late, estimate, vibrate, appreciate, communicate, graduate, alternate, …

_ave_ shave, behave, slave, wave, pavement, engrave, _eak_ Break, steak

_eat_ Great,

_ei_ weight, vein, veil, neighbor, _ey_ grey, survey, convey, prey

_ay_ gray, may, play, stay, tray, decay, saying, Exception /iː/ freak, quay/ ki:/ (port)

/aɪ/ height /haɪt/


Sound Structure Example


_a_ charity,

_ach_ attach,

_ad_ glad, advertise, add, bad,

_am_ chamber, clamp, stamp, ambassador

_an_ hand, understand, chance, dance, enhance, band _at_ bat, chat, hat, flat, sat, hatch,

Exception /ɒ/

/ɑː/ wad/wɒd/(BrE) ; /wɑːd/ (AmE) yacht

/jɒt/(BrE) ; /jɑːt/(AmE), /ei/ Ache /eɪk/

Sound Structure Example


_a_ a_ alive, agree, awareness, affair, about, across, again, another, apartment, banana, woman, sofa,…

ad_ advantage, addition, address, _ant_ Elephant, elegant, brilliant

_le_ Telephone, elephant _em problem, solemn

_en_ kitchen, excellent, open, happen, experience, different, conscience _ient efficient, proficient, ancient, patient

_er_ together, leather, eager, singer, ginger, photographer, western _i_ medicine, nationality,

_ible_ possible, responsible, terrible, edible _our_ behaviour, harbour, labour,

_ous_ anxious, famous, nervous, dangerous, thorough/'θʌrə/, _u_ suggest, suppose, century, autumn, circus

_ur_ survive, surprise,

_ure_ future, feature, picture, creature, measure _ate_(last

syllable in ADJ and NOUN)

(ADJ): accurate, approximate, private, moderate, separate, delicate, certificate, appropriate, considerate, passionate

(NOUN): climate, chocolate

Exception /əv/ or /ʌv/ of,

/jʊə/ pure, cure, during, curiosity, viewer /vju:/

Sound Structure Example



_er_ emergency, detergent, merge, emerge, diverse, universe _ear_ earn, early, pearl, learn

_irl_ girl, birthday, whirl /wɜːrl/

_or_ worm, workshop, work, worse _orld_ world

_ur_ slur, curly, burst, burglar, curtain, furniture, burnt, urgent, current, further, excursion

_urnt_ burnt

Exception /jʊə/ endure,

/ eə/ bear, pear

Sound Structure Example


_oa_ Boat, throat, goat, float, boast, coach, load, road, toad _oam_ foam, roam

_o Mango, go

_oe_ hoe, toe, foe, goes _oke_ coke, choke

_old_, old, fold, golden, hold, cold, told, sold _ole_ hole, stole

_olk_ folk, yolk _ome_ home, dome

_one_ phone, cone, cyclone

_ose_ Chose, chosen , dose, nose, pose, suppose, enclose _ost_ host, most, postman, ghost

_ote_ quote, note, wrote, vote _ou_ dough, though, although _oul_ mould, shoulder, soul, poultry

_ow_ sow, show, know, grow, blow, glow, snow, throw, slow, window, yellow, tomorrow

_own_ flown, thrown, shown, own, known _oze_ frozen

Exception /ʌ/ done/dʌn/

/uː/ Shoe, lose /ɔː/ frost, lost, cost

Sound Structure Example

/ auə / _our_ hour, flour, sour, our

_ower_ shower, flower

Sound Structure Example


/ əuə / _ower_ Grower

Sound Structure Example


_age_ cottage, vintage, average, damage, savage, advantage, dosage, village, message, manage, beverage, leakage ,…

e_(in first syllable) Eternal, emergency, embarrass

_e_ pretty, prepare, decide, regret, retreat, become, ……

en_ English, enrich, enable, enhance, enlarge endanger, enclose Ending with _ed

(_ted, _ded) needed, decided, invited, polluted, demanded, _ed (ADJ)

/id/ 1. aged / eɪdʒid /(a): cao tuổi, lớn tuổi

aged / eɪdʒd /(Vpast): trở nên già, làm cho già cỗi 2. blessed /blesid/ (a): thần thánh, thiêng liêng 3. crooked / krʊkid/(a): cong, oằn, vặn vẹo, lươn lẹo 4. dogged / dɒɡdi /(a): gan góc, gan lì, bền bỉ

5. naked /neikid/(a): trơ trụi, trần truồng

6. learned / lɜːnid /(a): có học thức, thông thái, uyên bác learned / lɜːnd /(Vpast): học

7. ragged / ræɡid /(a): rách tả toi, bù xù

8. wicked /wikid/(a): tinh quái, ranh mãnh, nguy hại 9. wretched / ˈretʃɪd /(a): khốn khổ, bần cùng, tồi tệ 10. beloved /bɪˈlʌvɪd /(a): yêu thương

11. cursed / kɜːst /(a): tức giận, khó chịu 12. rugged / ˈrʌɡɪd /(a): xù xì, gồ ghề

13. sacred / ˈseɪkrɪd /(a): thiêng liêng, trân trọng 14. legged / ˈleɡɪd /(a): có chân

15. hatred / ˈheɪtrɪd /(a): lòng hận thù

16. crabbed / kræbid /(a): càu nhàu, gắt gỏng

_i_ kick, hit, industry, six, swim, little, listen, children, picture, similar, different, distance, midnight, discovery, bliss, switch

_ill_ illness, bill, fill, grill, hill, mill, chill _im_ Impossible, imply, implement, _idge_ Bridge. fridge

_ui_ building, guilty, built, guitar

_y_ gym, oxygen, system, physics, typical , sympathy, mystery, syllable , symbol, sympathy, rhythm

_y(ending of a word with more than 2 syllables)

worry, candy, lively, happily, beautifully, city, quality, uncertainty, nationality, ugly


Exception /ɪ/ women, busy /e/ recreation /aɪ/ rhyme /uː/ suit /su:t/

Sound Structure Example


_e_ equal, even, me, these, scene, complete, extreme, athlete, compete, diabetes, _ea_ heat, beat, bead, seat, scream, increase, cheap, steal, meal, heal, real, cheat,

treat, conceal, reveal, plead, season, creature, read, wreath, wheat, eagle _ee_ agree, feel, keep, meet, need, cheese, cheep, see, three, sleeve, street, freeze,

coffee, thirteen, sheet, knee, spree, agree, free _ei_ receive, deceive, ceiling, receipt/ risi:t/, ,

_ie_ chief, piece, field, niece, believe, movie, cookie, series, species, twentieth,…

Exception /e/ healthy, wealthy

Sound Structure Example


_ear_ near, hear, ear, clear, spear, appear, tear, fear _eer_ engineer, beer, reindeer, cheer, sheer, peer, _ere_ atmosphere, here,

_eir_ weird

_ien_ audience, experience, obedient,

Sound Structure Example

/Iæ/ _ea_ reality, reaction

Sound Structure Example

/IeI/ _ea_ creation, recreation, create _ia_ association,

Sound Structure Example

/ ɒ /

_o_ dog, box, hot, job, knot, shop, stop, bottle, clock, scholar, orange _ost_ frost, cost, lost,

Sound Structure Example

_all_ hall, ball, all, fall, tall, install _alk_ walk, chalk, talk


/ ɔː /

_au_ daughter, autumn, haul, haunted, because, august, audience, caught, fault, taught, naughty, cauliflower, cauldron ,

_aw_ awesome, awful, draw, flawless, strawberry, straw _awk_ Hawk, awkward

_awn_ dawn, prawn, drawn, lawn

_oar_ board, roar, broaden, hoarse (khàn giọng) _oo_ door, floor,

_or_ short, morning, glorious, corner,

_ore_ score, bore, wore, before, chore, more, adore, ashore,…

_orn_ worn, born, throne, torn,

_ou_ ought, bought, four, fought, pour, course, thought, your, _ow_* knowledge

Exception /ɑː/ or /æ/

aunt /ɑːnt/(BrE); /ænt/ (AmE) laugh /lɑːf/(BrE); /læf/(AmE)

Sound Structure Example


_oi_ oil, boil, foil, noisy, noise, exploit, sequoia, choice, soil, coin, spoilt _oy_ boy, destroy,

Sound Structure Example


_u_ put, full, pull, push, sugar, cushion,…

_oo_ book, cook, foot, look, good, took, good, wool, _ou_ could, would, should ≠ double, couple

Sound Structure Example


_u_ rude, include,

_ou_ route, soup, group, through,…

_oo_ boot, mood, moon, noon, pool, too, choose, school, afternoon, shoot _ew_ grew, knew, blew, chew, flew

Sound Structure Example

/ ju /

_eu_ Europe, European, neutral, pneumonia,

u_ university, United, unique, usage, usually, unicorn ≠ umbrella _u_ duty, nuclear, deputy, huge, supreme, supermarket, mutual _use_ refuse, amuse, use, confuse,

_ute distribute, mute, cute, contribute Exception Guide, disguise /ai/


Sound Structure Example / ju


/ _ure_ Cure, pure, endure, mature,

Exception Sure /ʃʊə(r)/(BrE and AmE) , /ʃɔː(r)/ (BrE)


Sound Structure Example


b_ better, begin, beverage

_b_ herbal, slumber, timber, clamber, globe, rainbow, rebel, rebirth

_b job, sob

_bb_ robber, rubber, bubble, rabbit Exception

No sound: _mb comb, plumber, limb, lamb, climb, thumb, tomb _bt doubt/daut/, debt/det/, subtle

Sound Structure Example


d_ day, door, December, document, decide, dislike, damage, duty, distribute,

_d_ endanger, adorable, editor, predict, shadow, candle, odorless, headache, made, today, kindness, laundry,

_d blind, bind, mind, bird, hand, behind

_dd_ shaddock, addition, addiction, address, ladder, middle, pudding,

_de tide, hide, decide, code

t +_ed

d +_ed wanted, visited, delicated,

needed, decided, landed, downloaded, added, Ending with _ed

(âm hữu thanh trước _ed) banned, begged, breathed, changed, loved, moved, played, raised, rolled, registered.


_du_ /ʒ/ module/ˈmɒdjuːl/, graduate, procedure No sound handsome, handkerchief, Wednesday,

sandwich, grandfather, grandmother, grandparents, grandchildren,

Sound Structure Example


th_ the. this, that, these, those, they, them, their, though, thus, therefore, there,

_th_ father, mother, weather, either, feather, together, clothing, neither, although, another, southern, northern, clothing

_th smooth, soothe _the breathe, clothe, teethe

Sound Structure Example



f_ father, festival, follow, fault, _f_ refuse, defense, adrift,

_f deaf, belief, half

_ff_ staff, off, coffee, office, different, difficult _gh_ tough, cough, laugh,

_ph_ photograph, telephone, orphan, geography,

Exception Of/


/, plough/ plau /, though /

ð əu

/, although/



ð əu


Sound Structure Example


g_ get, game, good, guess, gather, gallery, government, group, gift, goose, glove,

_g_ language, cigarette, wagon, hungry, together, tiger, hamburger, begin, mangrove, forgive

_g fig, hug, plug, drug, drag, _gg_ egg, foggy, beggar, jogging,

Exception No sound: gm_ paradigm /ˈpærədaɪm/

gn_ Sign / sain /, design/ dizain /, foreign/ f ɔːr ən /

Sound Structure Example

/ dʒ /

ge_ gerund, germ, genius, geography, gel, gem, gender, gesture, George, general, gene,

_ge_ age, page, vegetable,

_ge message, marriage, cottage, village, language, sponge, bridge, plunge, edge,

_gi_ giant, ginger, gin, engineer, origin gy_ gymnastics, gymnast

j_ jam, javelin, jet, jelly, Jack, Jane, January, June, July, jealous, junior, jump, Jupiter,

_j_ major,

Exception colleague /ˈkɒliːɡ/, jabot / ˈʒæboʊ/ , hallelujah /ˌhælɪˈluːjə/

Sound Structure Example


h_ harrow, hear, hollow, health, heat, house, hug,

_wh_ who, whom, whole, whose, whoever, wholly,

Exception No sound: heir, honor, honorable, honest, hour, vehicle, rhythm, exhausted, diarrhea, herbal, herb, (âm h câm)

Sound Structure Example

y_ young, yellow, yolk, yield, yell, year, yet, yes, yummy, yoga, yoghurt, yard,



_y_ beyond

Sound Structure Example


c_, cut, cough, caught, cauliflower, casual, carry, current _c_ declare, picture, action, document,

_cc_ occasion, accommodation, hiccup, account, _c psychic, politic, heroic,

_ch_ character, school, scholar, scheme, psychology, psychiatrist, psychic, chemistry, chemical, Christmas, Christina, orchid, chaos,

k_ kick, kettle, kindness

_k_ sketch, skillful, skull, chicken _k Pick, chick, click

_ke strike, motorbike, hike,

_que unique, discotheque, boutique, cheque, clique, picturesque, queue, lacquer, liquor, conquer

Exception kn_ know, knowledge, knee, kneel, knelt, knot, knife, knight, knock (âm k câm)

Sound Structure Example


qu_ quality, qualification, quarrel, question, quantity, quick, quiet, quite, quit _qu_ squirrel, squeeze, liquid, equality, conquest,

_cqu_ acquaint, acquire, acquittal, acquiesce, acquisitive

Sound Structure Example


_l_ lamb, lorry, lack,

_l_ aloud, explode, delete, complete, _l usual, manual, punctual

_ll_ usually, holly, hell, compel, lullaby, cello, hello, pillow,

Exception No sound: colonel /ˈkɜːnl/ , calm, palm, stalk, talk, walk, half (âm l câm)

Sound Structure Example


m_ mature, mother, miracle, memory, mess, milk, motion, mutual,

_m_ umbrella, comb, slumber, combine, timber, cucumber, remember, tomorrow, stamp, clamber,

_m Charm, alarm, storm,

_me Time, crime

_mm_ summer, immigrate, mommy, hammer,

_sm/ zəm/ enthusiasm, criticism, humanism, journalism


Exception _mb climb, thumb, limb, comb, plumber (âm b câm)

_ mn autumn /ˈɔːtəm/, column /ˈkɑːləm/, hymn : bai thanh ca), condemn: ket an, solemn (âm n câm)

mnemonic /nɪˈmɑːnɪk/: thuộc về trí nhớ (âm m câm)

Sound Structure Example


n_ narrow, newspaper

_n_ enrich, endanger, demonstrate, onion _n vacation, information, injection, any, green _nn_ announcement, anniversary,

_ne airline, decline, fine, shrine, mine, dine, airplane, cane, online, Exception annual /ˈænjuəl/

Sound Structure Example


_an_+c, ancient, , anchorage, _an_ + k, ankle

_an_ + q banquet _an_ + x anxious,

_ang_, angle, angel, language, mango,

_ing_, Sing /siŋ, swing, linguistics, bilingual, thing, mingle, _ink_ twinkle, wrinkle, sprinkle, twinkle, sink, think, pink, _onk_,_ Monkey/ mʌŋki:/

ong_,_ tongue, among, onq_ conquer, _ung_ hungry, plunge

_unc_ function, punctual, junction, conjunction, juncture,

Exception annual/ /ˈænjuəl/, ancient /ˈeɪnʃənt/,ancestor /ˈænsestər/ financial, sponge/spʌndʒ/

Sound Structure Example


P_, pick, pepper, package, paper, paint, passport, peace, peacock, personal, public, punish, plumber,

_p_, impatient, newspaper, sympathetic, pipe, stupid, hope, explode, superman, _p stop, hiccup, chop

_pp_ pepper, hippo, supper, appear, apparent, apple, happy, puppy, Exception

pn pneumonia, pneumatic, (âm p câm)

/ps Psalter, psephology, psychology, psychic, psychiatrist /saɪˈkaɪətrɪst/

âm p câm

pt Pterodactyl /terəˈdæktɪl/, ptomaine/ təumein/, receipt/ risi:t /


Sound Structure Example


r_ road, reality, railway, register, rocket, rude, rabbit,

_r_ increase, spree, freeze, wrong. erosion, parents, airport, depart, more, storm, sure, port, supermarket, worse, mature, nature, learner, diarrhea, cry,

_r car, beer, four, hour/ /, order, longer, singer, far, further, teacher, seizure, pleasure

_rr_ arrange, carry, lorry, worried, arrow, narrow, arrest, arrive, borrow, correct, barrel, cherry, strawberry, embarrass, ferry, marry, merry, narrative, correct, sorrow, current

wr_ write, wrote, written, wrong, (âm w câm) Exception thawing /θɔːriŋ /

Sound Structure Example


_c_ ancestor, decide, decease, receive, receipt, recipe, _cc_ Access, accelerator, accept

sc_ /sk/ scar, score, sculpture, scab, scold, scull, /s/ scene, scent, science,

s_ see, sad, silent, slave, summer, social, solution _s_ ask, handsome, taste, industry, hustle, castle, fasten

_se_ release, house, conserve, blouse, goose, loose, louse, moose, _ss_ lesson, messy, blossom, missing, pussy, glossy, embassy, arrest,

_ss discuss, happiness, boss, glass, moss, mass, miss, confess _k + _s kicks, picks, clocks, chicks, checks, brakes, makes,

_f + _s chefs,

_p(e) + _s stops, hopes, drops, helps, perhaps, claps, _ph + _s photographs, paragraphs,

_gh + _s coughs, laughs,

_t +s hits, meets, regrets, puts _th + _s months

_x_ Text, experience, fix /fiks/, excuse me, Exception No sound listen/ lisn /, castle/ keisl /

aisle/ ai əl / , island/ ai lənd / , isle/ aiel / (âm s câm)

Sound Structure Example


_vowel + x_ Mix, fax, box, excuse, exchange, excellent, exercise, excited

Sound Structure Example

âm p câm



s_ sure,

_ss_ assurance, passion, confession, impression, ch_ chef, chalet, achievement,

sh_ shield, shadow, shake, shy, share, show, shock, sharp, shell, shipping,

_sh_ ashamed, ashore, cashier, cushion, punishment, establishment, fashion,

_sh flash, cash, ash, blush, push, establish, accomplish, selfish, English, British, wish, childish, splash,

_c_ + _i_ + vowel

_cie_ ancient,

_cial beneficial, official, _cion suspicion,

_cious suspicious, delicious, unconscious, Âm hữu thanh + _sion passion, mansion, dimension _t_ + _i_ + vowel _tial initial, confidential, partial, martial,

_tiate_ differentiate, negotiate, initiate,

_tion caution, attention, recreation, extinction, solution, invention, action,

_tious superstitious, infectious Exception

_x_ /k ʃ/ Anxious/ əeŋ ʃəs/ , sexual, luxury,

Sound Structure Example


z_ zero, zebra, zip, zodiac, zoo, zone, _zz_ amazing, maze, prize, lazy, Brazil

_zz buzz

the + _s breathes, bathes, clothes

Âm hữu thanh + _s cars, dreams, drums, eyes, fans, finds, hands, is, kings, plays, rides, runs, says, schools, ties, was, wears, wins, words

vowel + s + vowel choose, season, because, business, busy, desert, desire, easy, fuse, lose, music, noisy, nose, organization, pose, raise, reason, refuse, rise, these, visible, visit, resume, resort

_sm_ journalism, alcoholism, criticism, materialism, organism, socialism, symbolism, terrorism,

_ss_ scissor,

_x_ /z/ anxiety,

/igz/ Exam, exist, exhaust, exact, example, examine o + _es /z/ Goes, does,

s/ ss + _es passes z + _es buzzes, ch + _es watches

x + _es fixes

sh + _es /iz/ washes,




pizza/ pi:tsə/, blouse, goose, house, loose, louse, moose,

Sound Structure Example


_du_ procedure, education, module _g_ regime, massage, mirage

vowel +_sion illusion, conclusion, vision, decision, fusion, _sual_ casual, usual, visual

_sure measure, pleasure, _zure Seizure, azure, Exception sure, ensure /ɪnˈʃʊr/

Sound Structure Example


t_ table, technique, temperature, terminal, ticket, territory, two, turn, telephone, _t_ volunteer, certainty, return, stick, stolen, suitcase,

_t hot, great,

_tt_ attention, attack, better, bottom, bottle, kettle, butterfly, cottage, little, pretty, button, cuttlefish, battle, glitter, utter, batter,

vowel + _te

_ate inflate, classmate, hate, _ete complete, delete,

_ite write, bite

_ote rote, wrote, remote

_ute minute, mute, cute, parachute,

_th_ Thames, Thomas, thyme, Chatham, Streatham

Sound Structure Example


Ch_ children, charm, chamber, cheating, chariot, chicken, choose, _ch_ orchard, mischievous, achievement,

_ch attach, hatch, fetch, teach, approach, coach, catch, _tu_ actual, mutual, spiritual, eventually,

_ture_ future, creature, capture, culture, departure, furniture, gesture, lecture, manufacture, mixture, picture, sculpture, structure, texture, venture, vulture, juncture,

Exception /t/ mature

Sound Structure Example


th_ thick, thorough, theme, thumb, think, thought, thigh, thanks, thirsty, thousand, three, Thursday,

_th_ author, authentic, birthday, nothing, everything, something, _th wreath, breath, cloth, teeth, birth,

Exception No sound Asthma/ əezmə /, isthmus/ isməs /


Sound Structure Example


eu_/_eau_ Europe, European, eureka, Eugene, eucalyptus, beauty/ bjuti:/

u_ usually, use, unique, united, unicorn, union, _uge huge, refuge,

_use amuse/əmjuz/, abuse, reuse, _ute mute, cute,

_ew_ mew, news,

Sound Structure Example


v_ vary, vase, virus, vacation, veil, venture

_v_ avoid, adventure, aviator, navy, divide, devil, marvelous, heavy, even, salvation, oval,

vowel + _ve

_ave slave, save, shave, behave, have, cave, _eve sleeve, Steve, evening,

_ive live, dive, forgive, driver

_ove remove, love, over, glove, clover, movement, drove, over,

_ph_ Stephen = Steven ,

_f_ Of / əv/

Sound Structure Example


w_ way, win, wing, want, way, worry, willing, wagon, widow, welcome, wear, weird, wait, wonder, Wednesday, witch, watch,

_w_ award, awake, awareness, swan, swim,

wh_ wheat, whale, while, whenever, what, where, why,

_wh_ overwhelm, awhile,

Exception No sound: _wr_ wrap/rəep/, wreak/ri:k/, wreath/reθ/ , wreck/rek/, write,

two/tu:/, answer/ əensə/, (âm w câm)


Qui tắc đánh trọng âm

N0 Từ loại/ qui tắc Số âm tiết Trọng âm Example 1 Verb


2 2 Relax, begin

Among, between, against, aside 2 Noun


2 1 Action, teacher

Happy, rainy 3 Noun + verb 2 1 (noun)

2 (verb)

Present, Import Present , Import 4 Động từ ghép

Compound verb

2-3 Từ thứ 2 Overcome


5 Danh từ ghép 2-3 Từ thứ 1 Raincoat, outcome (kết quả)


snowstorm 6 Tính từ ghép 2-3 Âm 1 của từ thứ 2 Bad-tempered




trước nó

Crucial, beneficial, special, artificial

_ety Society

_ible Accessible, impossible, irresistible,

_ic/ _ics Economic, economics, politics

_ish foolish

_ical magical

_ically Enthusiastically, sympathetically

_ial initial, confidential,

_id splendid

_ious Insidious

_eous courteous

_uous continuous

_iar Familiar

_ian Musician, librarian, politician

_iasm Enthusiasm,

_ier Plier

_ity Celebrity, quantity, personality, nationality, ability

_itive Competitive, sensitive

_ion suspicion

_ior Interior, superior,

_ium Ammonium, plutonium, sodium

_sion Decision, television, impression

_tion Attraction, protection, condition, nation

_ience Convenience, experience

_iency Deficiency, proficiency,

_ient Convenient, patient

_logy Psychology, biology,

_sophy philosophy

_graphy Geography, photography

_ular Curricular, peninsular

_ulum Curriculum

_uous Continuous,



Trên chính hậu tố


_ee Degree, employee.

Exception: coffee, committee

_eer Engineer, pioneer

_ese Vietnamese

_ever Whenever

_vert convert

_oo Kangaroo, shampoo

_oon Balloon, afternoon

_sist Insist, consist, assist, resist


_ique Unique, boutique, antique, applique _isque

_esque Picturesque, discotheque,

_ette Cigarette,

_ain Maintain, obtain, again, explain, contain, remain

_ade lemonade

_aire Billionaire, questionnaire

_self Himself, myself

_tain Obtain, attain, entertain

_tract Contract, subtract, extract

_test Protest

_vent prevent

_mental Fundamental, environmental

9 _age

3-4 3 từ cuối lên

Average, coverage, camouflage

_ate complicate

_ary/_ory binary, voluntary, dictionary , necessary, military

_cy democracy, literacy, emergency, frequency,

fluency, pharmacy

_gy Technology, biology, psychology

_ty certainty, quantity, quality,

_phy Geography, photography

10 _how



_what Somewhat

_where Somewhere , everywhere, anywhere

11 _er 2 1 Teacher, flower, father, suffer, offer


_or Liquor, tutor

12 _ever 2 Chính nó However, whatever

13 a_ 2 2 About, again, abuse, alone, asleep

14 _ow 1 Follow, borrow

15 _teen (number) _teen Eighteen,

16 _ty (number) 1 Seventy, twenty,

N0 Hậu tố Gốc từ Trọng âm Từ thêm hậu tố

1 _ful beauty

Trọng âm khi thêm hậu tố giống như trọng âm trên gốc từ


2 _less thougth thoughtless

3 _able ẹnjoy ẹnjoyable

4 _al tradition Traditional

5 _ous danger Dangerous

6 _ly direct Directly

7 _er work Worker

8 _or conquer Conqueror

9 _ant account Accountant

10 _ing begin Beginning


11 _ive attract Attractive

12 _ise,_ize memory Memorize

13 _en wide Widen

14 _ment employ Employment

15 _ness happy Happiness

16 _ship friend Friendship

17 _hood neighbor neighborhood

N0 Tiền tố Gốc từ Trọng âm Từ thêm hậu tố

1 En_ danger endanger

2 Dis_ appear


Trọng âm khi thêm

disappear disadvantage

3 Im_ perfect /ɪmˈpɜː.felt/,


tiền tố giống như

imperfect impatient

trọng âm trên gốc

4 In_ correct



5 Ir_ regular irregular

6 Re_ call recall

7 Un_ important unimportant

believe unbelievable

8 Non_ toxic non-toxic

9 Over_ crowded overcrowded

estimate overestimate

10 Under_ estimate underestimate



Lời cảm ơn

(Thanks ) Thanks

Many thanks Thanks a lot

Thanks very much for

It was so nice/kind/good of you to do sth

I am thankful/grateful to you for …

You are welcome.

Not at all. don’t mention it.

(ko có gì, dừng bận tâm)

-(It’s) My pleasure! (vinh dự của tui) (đều dịch là: Không có gì).

I am glad you like it; I am glad you enjoyed it.

It was the least I could do for you (Ít nhất thì đó là cái tôi có thể làm cho bạn) I’m glad I could help

(tôi mừng vì có thể giúp bạn)

Sorry/my bad

My mistake/my apologies Never mind. (hông có sao đâu) -Don’t worry. (đừng lo)


Lời xin lỗi

(Apology) It’s my fault

I’m sorry/ I apologize I had that wrong I was wrong on that I’d like to apologize I want to apologize I owe you an apology

I wanted to tell you I’m sorry That was wrong of me

-It’s alright. (tôi ổn mà)

(đều dịch là: Không sao đâu/ Đừng lo) It doesn’t matter (ko thành vấn đề) Forget it (quên đi)

No problem That’s alright

(Quên nó đi/ ko sao đâu/ đừng bận tâm/ ổn mà)

Ok it’s not your fault (ko phải lỗi của bạn)

Rủ rê

(Suggestion) Shall we …..?

Why don’t we/ you…?

How about…?

Let’s ….

Great! I’d love to.

That would be great!

Lời mời

(Offer/ Invitation) Would you like sth?

Would you like to do sth?

Do you feel like doing s.th?

It is very nice/ kind of you. (Bạn thật tử tế)

No thanks (thôi khỏi cám ơn) Thanks/ Thank you, but I ……..

Yes. Thank you/ Yes, please.

That’s very kind of you

That would be nice (of you to invite me) That would be lovely (bạn thật tử tế) Oh, would you really? Thanks a lot (ồ thật ư? Cám ơn nha)

Lời đề nghị giúp đỡ (offering for help) Mình giúp ng ta

Do you need a hand?

May I help you?

Would you like me + to do sth?

Shall/may I do sth for …?

Thank you/ Thanks.

It is very nice/ kind of you. (Bạn thật tử tế)

No thanks (thôi khỏi cám ơn) Thanks/ Thank you, but I ……..

Yes. Thank you/ Yes, please.

That’s very kind of you/ that would be nice/ that would be lovely (bạn thật tử tế) Oh, would you really? Thanks a lot (ồ thật ư? Cám ơn nha)

It’s OK . I can do it myself

Don’t worry, I’ll do it myself (à ko sao.

Tui tự làm dc)

-Yes, with please.

-Yes, sure.


Lời yêu cầu giúp đỡ (Asking for help) Ng ta giúp mình

Do you mind …?

Would you mind…?

Can you…?

Could you…?

Will you…?

I wonder if you would/could …

-Why not?

-certainly/absolutely/sure chắc chắn rồi No problem

No, I don’t mind (ko, to ko phien) No, of course not/not at all

(ko thành vấn đề/ ko có gì, tôi ko phiền đâu/ ồ ko dĩ nhiên rồi, ko sao đâu)

I’m sorry/ afraid (that) I can’t,couldn’t Tôi xin lỗi/ tôi e rằng tôi ko thể…)

Lời khen

(Compliment) How+ adj+S+ to be!


-It's/ That’s very nice/kind of you to say that/ say so. (Bạn thật tử tế khi nói vậy) -It’s a nice compliment. (cám ơn vì lời khen)

Do you really think that? / Really?

(bạn thực sự nghĩ vậy à?)

You must be kidding! (bạn đùa à)

Lời nhận xét ý kiến/ quan điểm riêng về …


I can’t/couldn’t agree (with you) more.

(Tao hoàn toàn đồng ý với mày)

-There’s no doubt about it. (Chắc chắn rồi)

-You can say that again. (Đúng rồi đấy)

*Có 1 kiểu đáp lại là:

YOU DON’T SAY = “Thật à ?” hoặc:

“Mày không cần nói/ Ai cũng biết rồi”.

>< Tuy nhiên kiểu này có vẻ nước đôi và hơi bất lịch sự nên chắc thi ko cho đâu:))


Bước 1: Cần đọc kỹ đề bài xem bài. Xem yêu cầu là tìm từ đồng nghĩa hay trái nghĩa!

Bước 2: Sau khi đọc xong các bạn cần xác định trong câu này, từ được gạch chân mang nét nghĩa gì trong ngữ cảnh câu đó, chứ không thuần túy là đồng nghĩa với từ đó!

Có 2 trường hợp xảy ra:

TH1: Thứ nhất, từ gạch chân quen thuộc và bạn có thể đoán nghĩa, nhưng đáp án lại có nhiều hơn 2 từ mà bạn không hề biết.

TH2: Thứ hai, từ gạch chân lạ bạn chưa gặp bao giờ; tuy nhiên đáp án lại có những từ thông dụng bạn đã biết.

Bạn không cần quan tâm là có bao nhiêu từ là, việc chúng ta cần làm là xác định nét nghĩa cần tìm.

Bước 3: Tiếp đến ta xét các từ đã biết nghĩa trước

Loại trừ các đáp án đồng nghĩa nếu đề yêu cầu trái nghĩa (và ngược lại)


Loại trừ các đáp án có mặt chữ gần giống với từ gạch chân. Bởi vì phần lớn các từ đồng nghĩa hoặc trái nghĩa thường không có mặt chữ giống nhau.

Học sinh cũng cần nhớ rằng câu dài không có nghĩa là câu khó. Ngược lại một điều dễ thấy là ngoại trừ từ được gạch chân, hầu hết từ còn lại rất gần gũi, dễ hiểu nghĩa, được thiết kế để hỗ trợ thêm thông tin cho việc đoán nghĩa của từ khóa. Các từ gạch chân luôn được đặt trong một câu, một văn cảnh nhất định, mà khi phân tích ngữ cảnh ấy ta hoàn toàn có manh mối để đoán ra nghĩa của từ.

Quan sát kỹ các từ quan trọng trong câu để đoán nghĩa của từ gạch chân


Irritable = dễ cáu >< calm = bình tĩnh

Thoughtful = chín chắn >< thoughtless = vô tâm, không chín chắn At random = ngẫu nhiên >< at will = theo ý thích

Echoed = reflected = vang vọng, lặp lại.

Slow down = làm chậm lại >< speed up = vội vã

Apparent = obvious ( rõ ràng ) >< indistinct ( không rõ ràng) Replenish: cung cấp thêm >< Empty: làm trống rỗng

Concern = liên quan, quan tâm >< ease = không ràng buộc, không liên quan Look on the bright side = be optimistic: lạc quan >< be pessimistic : bi quan Land: hạ cánh >< take off: cất cánh.

Incredulous = skeptical = hoài nghi Settle = reconcile = giải quyết

Discernible: có thể nhận thức, có thể thấy rõ >< insignificant: vô nghĩa, tầm thường Generous = hào phóng, mean = bần tiện, keo kiệt

Rare: còn sống >< over-boiled: chín kĩ Fake: giả >< authentic: chính thức

Expertise = tài chuyên môn >< incompetence = sự thiếu trình độ Heritage = tradition = di sản văn hoá

Vary = thay đổi >< stay unchanged: không thay đổi, Secure = đảm bảo >< unsure = không chắc chắn Exaggerated = phóng đại >< understated = nói giảm

originate from = derive from = emerge from = spring from = stem from = arise from = hail from = come from: bắt nguồn từ by design = on purpose = purposedly = intentionally = deliberately: cố tình >< by chance = by mistake = by coincidence = accidentally = coincidentally = unintentionally = in error : tình cờ

1. uncompromising= inflexible : không nhân nhượng, không uyển chuyển 2. far-reaching= extensive : có phạm vi rộng

3. respectable= reputable : đáng kính trọng 4. hesitate= wavere : do dự, lưỡng lự 5. stimulate= improve : kích thích, cải thiện 6. adverse= negative : tiêu cực, bất lợi

7. exacerbate= aggravate : làm tăng, làm trầm trọng thêm(...), làm bực tức,...

8. with respect to= with regard to : đối với, liên quan đến 9. life expectancy= life span : tuổi thọ

10. alternative= substitude : thay thế 11. emission= release : phát ra 12. consumes= use : sử dụng

13. reserves= protected land : khu bảo tồn 14. breakthrough= headway : bước đột phá

15. day-to-day= habitual : hằng ngày, thường xuyên 16. the press= newspapers and magazines : báo chí




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