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Nội dung và yêu cầu cần giải quyết của nhiệm vụ luận văn (Về lý thuyết, thực hành, số liệu cần tính toán và hình vẽ). Đánh giá về chất lượng T.T.N.N (So với nội dung yêu cầu nêu trong nhiệm vụ T.T.T.N về mặt lý luận, thực hành, tính giá trị sử dụng, chất lượng bản vẽ). Đánh giá chất lượng của luận án trên các khía cạnh thu thập và phân tích dữ liệu ban đầu, cơ sở lý thuyết để lựa chọn giải pháp tối ưu, cách tính chất lượng của thuyết minh và bản vẽ, giá trị lý luận và thực tiễn của luận án.

First of all, I would like to express my deepest gratitude to my supervisor, Ms. Nguyen Thi Phuong Thu, M.A, for helping me through this challenging process. Last but not least, I would like to thank my family and my friends for their earnest encouragement and inspiration to complete this document.


  • Rationale
  • Aims of the study
  • Scope of the study
  • Methods of the study
  • Design of the study

I have been learning English for a long time; but sometimes I make mistakes in using and translating English negative questions into Vietnamese and vice versa. A detailed study of how English and Vietnamese negative question structures are constructed and used. The study "Negative questions in English and Vietnamese - a contrastive analysis" focuses on negative questions in English and Vietnamese equivalents within structures and using null words.

The study is carried out by carefully collecting materials from various sources to get complete information about English and Vietnamese negative issues. It also provides implications for learning negative questions in English and some suggestions for further study.



Negation in English and Vietnamese in brief

  • Definition of negation
  • Scope of negation
  • Focus of negation

In (1), the range of negation extends from "not" to "you", the subject (I), complement (absolute), operator (did) are excluded, the predication has a full negative effect. 1) = It is absolute that I disagreed with you or = that I disagreed with you is absolute. The focus of negation puts emphasis on a particular part of the negative clause; this not only suggests the contrast of meaning implied in the negative, but also implies the rest of the clause in the positive. The focus of negation is to place the effect on a single word belonging to one of the open class items in the sentence.

Due to the participation of final focus and contrastive focus, the focus of negation is not as ambiguous as the scope of negations, and they also have a certain contribution to finding an adequate explanation for ambiguity in the scope of negation. In an independent clause, the scope of the negation covers the entire negative effect, the extent of the scope being defined by the position of the focus.

Negative questions in English

  • What is a negative question?
  • The semantic and pragmatic approaches to English negative

Scope and focus are related in that scope must include focus. Ambiguity in these is extremely difficult to control, and the following elaboration may be helpful. Kathleen uses the negative question "Isn't there a vegetarian restaurant around here?" seek confirmation of something she believes to be true.

Bob: I'd like to take you guys out to dinner while I'm here, we'll have time to go around here somewhere before the evening session tonight, don't you think. Bob uses the negative question here for a very different reason: he previously accepted the truth of the statement that there is a vegetarian restaurant around here, but now infers it from what Kathleen says. He says he is disillusioned with two-party politics, he joined Common Cause, gave a lot of money to the Citizens Party.

The situation in (Ex. 5) is similar to that in (Ex. 3), the negative question is used to confirm something the speaker believes to be true, namely that John voted for Reagan. In (Ex. 6), on the other hand, as in (Ex. 4), the negative question is used to test a new unexpected inference, namely that Dick did not vote for Reagan. At first glance, it may seem that the various implicatures and relevance conditions seen in (Ex. 3) and (Ex. 6) are purely pragmatic, and that the apparent ambiguity arises from the various pragmatic inferences that the hearer draws on the basis of knowledge about the speaker . politics, eating habits, etc.

Chapter one provides definitions of negation in English and Vietnamese in brief, scope of negation, focus on negation, negative questions in English in detail, and the semantic and pragmatic approaches to English negative questions. The focus of the negation in English is divided into two types: final focus and contrastive focus.


  • Negative forms and non-assertive forms in English
    • Negative Forms
    • Non – assertive forms
  • Negative orientation
  • English negative questions
    • Negative Yes/No questions
    • Negative Tag- questions
    • Negative Wh- questions
    • Negative alternative questions
  • A contrastive analysis of negative questions in English and their
    • Structures of negative question
    • Subclause
  • Summary

You can ask, "The person goes with David, is she/he my friend?" The sentence here means “The girl” may be my friend I know but I am not sure. As part of this study, we would also like to provide a comparison of the use of "no" (negation of the base) in English negative questions and negative words in Vietnamese equivalents. As mentioned above, Yes/No questions can also be stated in a null response using the subject operator "no".

Sometimes "cạn tải/ khản tải/ chả tải/phải tạn/ tạn tại là / tạn tại là / chả tại là" is used in combination with "gào sa" in combination with "gào" in the pre-subject sa/sa/ position. In several negative yes/no questions, the negative particles and the non-assertive form can be combined to produce a negative form (any, whatever, whoever, ever, etc.) it can be replaced by a structure with a nuclear negator (no, nothing) , none, none, never, etc.), where the predicator remains positive in form (without not) and non-assertive words are replaced by nuclear negator in E.g. 1: Didn't you come there. For example, in the following examples the verbs are and were used in negative tag questions.

For example, in the following examples, the adjuncts do and done are used in negative marker questions. For example, in the following examples, the first adjuncts have, would, must and can are used in negative marker questions. In Vietnamese questions, people tend to use modal particles in the final position of the sentence.

In the previous work, we have just presented a contrastive analysis of the structure (clausal negation) between English negative questions and Vietnamese equivalents. The position of "not" and "không" in English and Vietnamese negative sentences are often similar, both placed before verbs. But in negative questions they are different; “không” in Vietnamese is not placed before the subject, while “no” can be placed before or after the subject (negative full form and negative short form).

Sometimes "khải" can also combine with "phải/ ải là" in pre-subject position is used on with "à/ sao/. And another more important part in the study is to find out how to use "not" in English negatives questions and "khôn", "chưa", "cất", "chả" in Vietnamese equivalents.


  • Some common mistakes
  • Some suggestions to correct the mistakes

Forming negative questions using subject operator inversion can probably be hard work, as the word order for questions in Vietnamese is almost the same as for statements. Some mistakes have been made by students who have misunderstood the English and Vietnamese negative questions. Only when learners understand the importance and usefulness of what they are discovering and feel comfortable do they themselves know the way to it.

Language learners tend to transfer their forms and meanings and their distribution of forms and meanings from their mother tongue to the foreign one and tend to make questions like in their mother tongue which leads to many mistakes. Therefore, the first and foremost thing that language teachers should keep in mind is that mistakes are natural and inevitable and should not worry about the mistakes made by students. In general, during the process of learning English, Vietnamese learners may face some problems and difficulties when dealing with English negative questions.

Students need to be aware of the structures of each type of question and know how to use English negative questions for different purposes, not just to ask information. As a rule, it definitely takes a lot of practice for students to master negative English questions. Teachers can give students some lists of questions so that students become familiar with the particular questions so that they can know the way to answer and use correct intonation.

During these oral exercises, they may make many mistakes, but once again, mistakes are inevitable and useful. Likewise, students should try their best to learn and try to read a lot of books to know much more about the target language English, especially negative questions. I personally believe that a contrastive analysis between English and Vietnamese negative questions will be useful for both teachers and students.


  • Summary of the study
  • Suggestions for further studies and final comment

However, due to limited time and experience, I have not been able to give more details about my subject, the errors and omissions are inevitable. This article has investigated the contrastive analysis of English and Vietnamese negative questions, and I have subjectively drawn out some findings about the structures and lexical devices used in English and Vietnamese negative questions. I have put a lot of effort into this study and have also had a lot of help from teachers, friends and family.

However, for such a large topic as this, it requires much more effort, time and knowledge to cover, therefore the study cannot avoid imperfection and limitation. Although, for further research, I hope this study will be a useful reference material and suggest that: A study on the semantic and pragmatic approach to English and Vietnamese negative questions. Lado, R (1957) Linguistics on Cultures, University of Michigan Press. 1972), A Comprehensive Grammar of the English Language, Longman.

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