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2020

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Nguyễn Gia Hào

Academic year: 2023

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She currently serves as a member of the Voluntary Sustainability Standards (VSS) Academic Advisory Board which was jointly established by the United Nations Forum on Sustainability Standards (UNFSS) and the Leuven Center for Global Management Studies (GGS) of the University of Leuven. He currently serves as a member of the Voluntary Sustainability Standards (VSS) Academic Advisory Board which was jointly established by the United Nations Forum on Sustainability Standards (UNFSS) and the Leuven Center for Global Management Studies (GGS) of the University of Leuven.

Table 1 Core conventions of ILO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Table 1 Core conventions of ILO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Introduction

1 Thematic Context

Sustainability standards and regulations can be distinguished from other standards and regulations on the basis of their content, i.e. international treaties such as the International Labor Organization (ILO) labor conventions and technical codes developed by international organizations such as the World Health Organization (WHO) Codex Alimentarius for food safety provides an important reference framework for sustainability standards and regulations.

Table 1 Different forms of sustainability standards and regulations
Table 1 Different forms of sustainability standards and regulations

2 About the Book

By contextualizing her study in the debates around 'comparative advantage', 'race to the bottom' and 'protectionism in disguise', the author empirically examines the effects of labor standards on a country's export performance. Two internationally recognized certifications available to a forest concessionaire in Indonesia – the Forest Stewardship Council (FSC) and the Program for the Endorsement of Forest Certification (PEFC) – are being studied.

The third-party images or other materials in this chapter are included in the Creative Commons license of the chapter, unless otherwise noted in a line of credit accompanying the materials. If material is not included in the chapter's Creative Commons license and your intended use is not permitted by law or exceeds the permitted use, you must obtain permission directly from the copyright holder.

Global Governance Frameworks for Sustainability Standards

Voluntary Sustainability Standards and the Sustainable Development Goals

1 Introduction

This chapter begins with a content analysis of the VSS, based on data from the International Trade Center (ITC) Standards Map, to assess to what extent the formal requirements and processes of the VSS align with the SDGs. This later section also relates to the discussion on business and human rights, considering its intersections with the SDGs and VSS debates, respectively.

2 Alignment of VSS with the SDGs: Content Analysis

In the latter case, it is easier to find the relevant VSS requirements and process criteria on the standards map according to the methodology explained above. Based on the assessment of data from the 2017 Standards Map, very few formal VSS requirements and processes are likely to be related to these areas.

Table 1 Matching of relevant VSS requirements/process criteria from the Standards Map with SDG 7; Checking whether or not ( ✓ / ✗ ) the ETP and RSPO standards include such requirements according to 2017 Standards Map data
Table 1 Matching of relevant VSS requirements/process criteria from the Standards Map with SDG 7; Checking whether or not ( ✓ / ✗ ) the ETP and RSPO standards include such requirements according to 2017 Standards Map data

3 From Paper to Practice: Examining VSS Impacts on the Ground

A study by the Danish Institute for Human Rights (DIHR) claims that more than 90% of the SDG targets are linked. 18 See the Business and Human Rights Resource Center's web portal and blog series on “Mandatory Due Diligence” at https://www.business-humanrights.org/en/mandatory-due-diligence.

4 Conclusions and Recommendations

However, progress on these and all other matters related to human rights and the environment cannot be left to voluntary initiatives alone, but requires, among other measures, effective mandatory regulation of business due diligence. Given that the SDGs are based on human rights and that corporate human rights and environmental due diligence potentially represent the most important business contribution to sustainable development, governments should promote mandatory due diligence regulation at national, regional and global (UN) levels.

Annex

IAEG-SDGs (Inter-agency Expert Group on SDG Indicators). 2017). Revised list of global sustainable development goal indicators. Retrieved from https://unstats.un.org/sdgs/indicators/indica tors-list/. Certification = Enforcement. Retrieved from https://wsr-network.org/wp-content/uploads/2018/08/WSR_Certif ication%CC%B8Enforcement.pdf.

The World Trade Organization and Sustainability Standards

This chapter is an overview of the WTO's interface with sustainability standards and is organized as follows. Section 4 describes the special status of developing countries in the context of sustainability standards and discusses where 'emerging economies' stand in this context.

2 WTO Disciplines on Sustainability Standards

New interpretations on standards-related issues can be seen through the work of WTO and IA Panels. Discussions regarding sustainability standards are also conducted within the relevant WTO committee structures.

3 WTO and Private Standards

However, analysis shows that it can be a costly decision to exclude private standards from the scope of the WTO. However, Article 4.1 of the TBT Agreement is often cited as a relevant provision to address private standards.

4 Sustainability Standards, Developing Countries and Emerging Economies

Fair participation, in real terms, in standards bodies, coupled with strengthening capacities to comply with standards, would contribute to a more balanced impact of standards on developing countries. It is often suggested that adoption and implementation of certain standards may sometimes be in the interest of developing countries.

5 Conclusion

It is in this context that Grimm, Thomas, Archna, Christoph, & Jorge Perez (2018, p. 46) highlight “the growing proactive commitment of developing countries to sustainability standards…[and] their efforts in aligning VSS with national priorities…”, indicating that it may be time for them to move away from a staunch stance on sustainability. United States—Measures Relating to the Importation, Trade, and Sale of Tuna and Tuna Products. American Journal of International Law.

Towards Greening Trade?

Environmental Provisions in Emerging Markets’ Preferential Trade Agreements

The argument is based on the assumption that emerging markets have less interest in higher environmental and labor standards and would be careful to promote them through their trade policies. However, there is little systematic evidence regarding the prevalence of environmental standards in the trade policies of emerging markets and their PTAs in particular.

2 Background and Related Literature

The empirical literature on environmental determinations in PTAs is still quite small, but provides important first insights. Nor is it certain whether the inclusion of environmental provisions in the WTO and in PTAs actually has positive environmental effects.

3 Measuring Environmental Provisions in PTAs

Incorporation of the right to regulate in environmental matters: with this set of provisions, the contracting parties want to retain their right to go beyond the existing level of environmental protection by introducing new regulation in the area of ​​the environment. Based on the final version of the codebook, each text of emerging market PTAs was manually coded by two independent persons.

4 Emerging Markets: A Bird’s Eye View

Most of the agreements signed by developing markets (75%) contain provisions that already in the preamble emphasize the commitment of countries to environmental protection and sustainable development. Another explanation for the variation in the indicator can be found in the type of partner country, as suggested in Section 2.

Table 1 gives the summary statistics for the variable of interest. On average, the 48 emerging market agreements score a 3.19, meaning that roughly three of the dimensions stated above are included in their PTAs
Table 1 gives the summary statistics for the variable of interest. On average, the 48 emerging market agreements score a 3.19, meaning that roughly three of the dimensions stated above are included in their PTAs

5 Emerging Markets: Zooming In 5.1 China

  • India
  • Indonesia
  • Brazil
  • Mexico

Nevertheless, analyzes of the environmental components of the Mercosur agreement show that they are weak (Hochstetler, 2003). The PTAs with the European Free Trade Association (EFTA) countries and Israel contained even fewer environmental provisions than the agreement with the EU.

6 Conclusion

Information Disclosure and Structural Dominance: Incorporating World Trade Organization Environmental Policy. Review of International Organizations, 1–23. India and the European Union will resume talks on a free trade agreement in January. The Economic Times.

Corporate Social Responsibility: The Interface Between the Private Sector

The aim of this chapter is to review the role of the private sector at the beginning of this century and to link it to the debate on social and environmental standards and regulations in the context of global governance. The chapter attempts to answer the following guiding questions: What context best explains the current use of social and environmental standards and regulations by the private sector?;

2 The Relevance of the Private Sector

In the post-2000 phase, the context shows a clear and close involvement of the private sector in the international agenda, especially aimed at a sustainable approach. As is clearly seen, private flows have overtaken public flows, indicating the new strength of the private sector (Fig.1).

Fig. 1 ODA versus FDI flows, 1970–2013 (millions USD, current). Source For FDI, UNCTAD statistics, http://unctadstat.unctad.org, and for ODA, OECD statistics, http://stats.oecd.org
Fig. 1 ODA versus FDI flows, 1970–2013 (millions USD, current). Source For FDI, UNCTAD statistics, http://unctadstat.unctad.org, and for ODA, OECD statistics, http://stats.oecd.org

3 The Corporate Social Responsibility Interface

Even then, some local institutions are promoting international initiatives around social and environmental norms and standards, such as SR10 from IQNet adopted by the Mexican private sector. From civil society and the international community, alternatives such as family-friendly enterprise certification (EFR) and GCMC have emerged.

Fig. 2 What to regulate or standardize? Source Levi-Faur (2011, p. 9)
Fig. 2 What to regulate or standardize? Source Levi-Faur (2011, p. 9)

4 Conclusions

2011). The interaction between public and private standards: Literature review series on the effects of private standards - Part III. Governance in the twenty-first century. Global Governance Who's who in corporate social responsibility assessment? Gütersloh, Germany: Bertelsmann Foundation.

Advances in Sustainability Reporting

What Is Missing?

After a brief historical description of the development of social responsibility and an analysis of the concepts of sustainable standards and good governance found in the literature, we discuss the potential of social responsibility as an instrument for strengthening the social and environmental standards of companies. We conclude the article with a discussion of some elements that we believe can directly affect the use of SR - i.e.

2 Historical Background and State of the Art

This rapid growth demonstrates a strong recognition of the positive role of SR and its importance in addressing society's needs for transparency. Despite this, most of the cases and discussions still focus on the issue of promoting the adoption of SR.

Table 1 Sustainability reporting and current national policies in GoF47 member countries (Argentina, Austria, Colombia, Norway and Switzerland did not participate in the study)
Table 1 Sustainability reporting and current national policies in GoF47 member countries (Argentina, Austria, Colombia, Norway and Switzerland did not participate in the study)

3 Concept and Principles of Sustainability Reporting

There is little focus on how SR is actually changing the performance of companies or improving social and environmental standards. We argue that the most important role of SR is to serve as an instrument to improve corporate social and environmental behavior in the broadest sense; therefore, the exact SR standard or methodology applied is not the focus of this chapter.

Fig. 1 Common principles and practices of good governance and sustainability reporting
Fig. 1 Common principles and practices of good governance and sustainability reporting

4 Stakeholder Involvement: The Missing Link

In the context of sustainability standards for the economy, good management also requires a strong commitment to sustainable development (Sachs, 2015) or what some call management for sustainability (Bosselmann, Engel & Taylor, 2008). Our research revealed that there is in principle no difference between countries that are part of the GoF47 and those that are not in terms of the use of SR and also in terms of reporting practices by government institutions, as shown in Table1 and in the cases described above.

Fig. 2 Factors that directly affect the use of SR and, in turn, the governance processes leading towards improvements in reporting practices and corporate policies
Fig. 2 Factors that directly affect the use of SR and, in turn, the governance processes leading towards improvements in reporting practices and corporate policies

5 Conclusion and Policy Recommendations

Retrieved from https://www.globalreporting.org/resourcelibrary/Informing- decisions,-driving-change-The-role-of-data-in-a-sustainable-future.pdf. GRI (2017). Transition to standards. Retrieved from https://www.globalreporting.org/information/. g4/transition-to-standards/Pages/default.aspx.

Table 2 List of recommendations to policymakers and civil society organizations to promote a better use of sustainability reports
Table 2 List of recommendations to policymakers and civil society organizations to promote a better use of sustainability reports

The Impact of Global Labour Standards on Export Performance

2 Emerging Economies and Global Standards

Via Supply-Side Participation

The presence of developing economies in global value chains (GVCs) is increasing (Lee & Gereffi, 2015). The introduction of developing economies into global value chains is expected to change the standard-setting process.

Via Demand-Side Participation

In a world dominated by GVCs, the protection of final consumers by enforcing appropriate quality standards and on the supply side the protection of the interests of the laborers by enforcing occupational safety and health becomes complicated. It remains to be seen whether the emerging economy companies face the same pressure as Western companies to address the issue of labor and environmental standards and if so, how they go about it.

Via Civil Society and State and Private Actors

3 Empirical Analysis 3.1 Description of Data

The linear variable is the log of the number of fatal injuries in the manufacturing sector per 100,000 employees. I have used this index and call itlabuno as an alternative measure of labor rights.

4 Results

Then I look at the effect of labor rights on exports for each category of country and see if the effect is different at different levels of income for the country. I also tested whether the effect of labor rights on exports is different at different levels of economic growth.

Table 2 Summary statistic
Table 2 Summary statistic

Sustainability Standards in Sectoral and Country Contexts

The Changing Landscape

Potentials and Pitfalls of Making Global Value Chains More Sustainable

Palm oil causes substantial positive socio-economic as well as negative environmental and social impacts, creating important questions in linking environmental sustainability and socio-economic development issues (Brandi, 2015). Section 2 highlights the importance of smallholder certification and Section 3 describes the benefits of RSPO certification for smallholders and assesses the trade-offs between the socio-economic and green dimensions of development in the context of privately driven sustainability standards for palm oil.

2 The Importance of Smallholder Certification

The involvement of smallholders in certification schemes is essential - in the palm oil sectors and beyond (Brandi, 2016, p. 26). In Indonesia, more than a million smallholders are an essential element of the palm oil sector.

3 Economic and Environmental Sustainability: The Risk of Trade-Offs

The concern is that smallholder farmers could be excluded from international markets that require certified palm oil. China and India, as well as the domestic Indonesian market, for example, still largely source uncertified palm oil.

4 The Changing Standards Landscape and Its Implications

If expansion takes place in forested areas, this is a contradiction to a key objective of sustainability standards for palm oil. Sustainability standards for palm oil—Challenges for smallholder certification under the RSPO.The Journal of Environment & Development.

The Programme for the Endorsement of Forest Certification (PEFC) and Its

The purpose of this chapter is to further analyze whether PEFC is likely to be widely used in Indonesia and thus help solve the country's forest management problems. Section 4 explores several characteristics that indicate the acceptance of PEFC in Indonesia and its role in contributing to SFM in the country.

2 Forest Management in Indonesia

This chapter explores whether PEFC complements the mandatory standard as well as FSC and whether it plays an important role in sustainable practices in the Indonesian forestry industry. To promote sustainable forest management in light of growing skepticism about the effectiveness of government policies and initiatives and the perceived failure of a global intergovernmental mechanism to halt deforestation and forest degradation, voluntary certification schemes have been seen as a viable alternative to maintaining existing national mandatory policies and regulations (Maryudi, 2015; . Van Bueren, 2010).

3 Forest-Related Standards in Indonesia

Comply with all national regulations and international conventions related to normative rights of workers. In this respect, the PEFC requirement is in line with the requirements of the government and the FSC.

Table 1 Forest management components and their references to FSC and PEFC principles Forest management components used in this study FSC principles PEFC principles Compliance with laws and satisfaction of financial
Table 1 Forest management components and their references to FSC and PEFC principles Forest management components used in this study FSC principles PEFC principles Compliance with laws and satisfaction of financial

4 Discussion

PEFC Acceptability

This suggests that the certification system developed by the PEFC may have greater market acceptance. Requirements and standards imposed by PEFC are not as strict as those imposed by FSC.

Table 4 Comparing voluntary certification schemes and their operations
Table 4 Comparing voluntary certification schemes and their operations

The PEFC Scheme’s Implications for SFM in Indonesia

Thus, its potential contribution to the national SFM in Indonesia and, ultimately, to the governance of global emissions from the forest sector remains to be seen. Transnational private regulation in practice: The limits of forest and labor standards certification in Indonesia. Business and Politics.

Global and National Food Safety and Quality Standards: Implications

Given the potential opportunities and challenges of food safety and quality standards, the aim of this chapter is to contribute to the understanding of how public and private actors in developing countries respond to global and national standards and to analyze the implications of various standards for smallholder farmers in the fruit and vegetable (F&V) value chain. First, we describe how Thailand and India address food safety and quality and how they have responded to international standards, such as GlobalGAP, by introducing their own local public and private standards.

2 Public and Private Food Safety and Quality Standards in Thailand and India

Production, Exports and Food Safety

Both Thailand and India are facing food safety issues that have negatively impacted exports to high-value markets, such as the European Union (EU). Unlike Thailand, the export of Indian fruit and vegetables to the EU did not decrease in the period from 2007.

Table 2 Production and export of fruits and vegetables in Thailand and India Year Thailand
Table 2 Production and export of fruits and vegetables in Thailand and India Year Thailand

Level 1 Standards: Private GAP Standards for the High-Value Export Market

According to Thai experts, the decline in the number of GlobalGAP certified producers can be explained by a large number of Rapid Alert System for Food and Feed (RASFF) notifications. In the case of Thailand, a shift can be observed from group certification to individual certification.

Level 2 Standards: Local GAP Standards for Broad-Scale Adoption

  • Thailand
  • India

The development of the ThaiGAP standard for the domestic market was supported by the Thai Retailers Association and several Thai supermarkets, including Siam Makro, Tops Supermarket, Tesco Lotus and CP All Plc. Like ThaiGAP, both IndiaGAP and IndGAP have two levels: Level 1 for the high-value export market and Level 2 for the domestic market and to allow gradual upgrading to international standards.

3 Implications and Impacts of Standards on Farmers

Level 1 GAP Standards for High-Value Export Market

Lack of sustainability of donor-supported GlobalGAP certification was also found in a USAID project supporting GlobalGAP certification of mango farmers in India. The case of Mahagrapes (Roy & Thorat, 2008), a marketing partner for producer cooperatives in India, shows a very successful example of collective action and farmer-led GlobalGAP certification.

Level 2 GAP Standards

  • Level 2 GAP Standards Promoted by Public Actors
  • Private Level 2 GAP Standards Imposed by Domestic Retailers

More importantly, however, there are several problems related to the design and implementation of the Q-GAP standard that lead to a low level of acceptance of the standard requirements and ultimately to a lack of credibility. Experiences from Thailand in implementing the Q-GAP standard offer important lessons for India.

4 Conclusion and Recommendations

It is therefore important to identify ways in which small farmers can also adopt the standard. The standard is a requirement for export and the Q-GAP mark is used by domestic supermarket chains.

Hình ảnh

Table 1 Core conventions of ILO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Table 1 Different forms of sustainability standards and regulations
Table 1 Matching of relevant VSS requirements/process criteria from the Standards Map with SDG 7; Checking whether or not ( ✓ / ✗ ) the ETP and RSPO standards include such requirements according to 2017 Standards Map data
Table 1 (continued) SDG 7
+7

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