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Accelerators and Colliders

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Nguyễn Gia Hào

Academic year: 2023

Chia sẻ "Accelerators and Colliders"

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The first chapter provides a brief introduction to accelerators and colliders around the world, while the second chapter presents applications for the production of the medical radionuclide Ir-192, which is used in brachytherapy. There are important properties of the accelerator depending on the purpose of use, e.g. collision energy and particle type.

Introduction

The obtained results were discussed to recommend suitable reaction processes and targets for the production of Ir-192. The production of Ir-192 is also available for various methods such as the (neutron, gamma) reaction process in nuclear reactors [2, 5-7].

Materials and methods

These studies mainly intensify the production of Ir-192 in Os-192 enriched targets through (p, n) reaction processes and the measurement by Tarkanyi et al. Here, we have investigated the production of the radioisotope Ir-192 used in brachytherapy through nuclear reaction processes on enriched stable Os isotope targets.

Results and discussions

  • Cross-section calculations for the production of Ir-192
  • Simulation of activity and yield of product for the production of Ir-192 The calculated cross-section results are in good agreement with the available
  • Calculation of separation energies
  • Calculation of integral yield of reaction processes

In addition to the Os-192 target, for Os-190 and Os-189 targets, unfortunately, the cross-sectional results for Ir-192 production have not been found in several works. Therefore, for the production of Ir-192 on Os-190 and Os-189 targets, we can reliably represent the alpha-induced reaction process.

Conclusion

The production of Ir-192 in proton-induced reactions may include contamination by the radioisotope Ir-190 higher than 16 MeV of incident proton energy. In: Power, X-PMSP Investigation of the Production of Medical Ir-192 Used in Cancer Therapy via Particle.

Electron cloud

Numerical simulations of electron cloud

The EC density distribution as a function of time and energy and the details of the interaction between electrons and walls can be obtained based on EC construction simulation codes with 2D and 3D versions. The construction of the EC and the effect of the EC on the proton beam in the SPS accelerator were simulated by Vay et al.

Single and coupled bunch instabilities

The 3D code CLOUDLAND was adopted by Wang et al., to study the EC evolution in the quadrupole and sextupole regions of the ILC/CESRTA with and without prechamber [ 48 ]. The simulation results indicated that the average EC density in the quadrupole magnet of the ILC could be reduced by 98% under the presence of prechamber when the SEY was less than 1.1.

Electron cloud mitigation methods

Ohmi studied the interaction between the EC and the single clump via PIC method (PEHTS) in High Energy Accelerator Research Organization B Factory Low Energy Ring (KEKB LER) [57]. The test results showed that the EC in the liners could be suppressed even after air exposure for 3 months.

High vacuum gradient

Photons-/electrons-/ions-stimulated desorption

The ion-induced pressure instability, first observed at CERN, can limit the jet stream in accelerators and colliders and has been intensively studied [121–123] . The effects of the ion dose, the mass and the energy on the ISD yields of copper and aluminum were investigated [119]. The desorption yields of the copper and the aluminum decreased by two times after the annealing.

Final remarks

Influence of the sputtering gas on the preferred orientation of thin nanocrystalline titanium nitride films. Simulation of electron trajectories in a magnetron sputtering system of tin with cst particle study. Analytical considerations are given on the evolution of the normalized emittance of the particle beam in the presence of radiative reaction and the multiple Coulomb scattering.

Laser pulse propagation in a gas-filled capillary tube

Laser-driven wakefields generated by two capillary modes

The presence of the modal structure, which is determined by the boundary conditions on the capillary wall, affects the propagation of the laser pulse through the capillary and thus the excitation of plasma waves inside the capillary. This property allows us to control the acceleration of electrons through the modal structure of the propagation of the laser pulse, as long as the laser intensity on the capillary wall is below the breakdown of the material [20, 21]. In this paper, we present a new scheme of a gas-filled capillary accelerator driven by a laser pulse generated from the two-mode mixing of capillary eigenmodes, the so-called electromagnetic hybrid modes [20].

Coupling control for generating two capillary modes

The longitudinal wave number kzn, the damping coefficient kln and the group velocity of the nth mode vg,n. where k0¼ω0=c¼2π=λ0 is the laser wave number with the laser wavelength λ0 and εris is the relative permittivity. A centrally concentrated mixing mode intensity profile significantly reduces the energy flux passing through the capillary wall. The maximum modulation due to the relativistic self-focusing effect is up to 0.5% for the propagation of the EH11-EH12 mixing modes in a capillary.

Beam dynamics in a single-stage two-mode mixing LPA 1 Electron acceleration

  • Beam loading
  • Betatron motion
  • Effects of radiation reaction and multiple Coulomb scattering
  • Numerical studies of the single-particle dynamics in a single stage Numerical calculations of the single-particle dynamics can be carried out

The maximum achievable energy gain of the two-mode LPA for different normalized intensities a20 as a function of the phase mismatch. The maximum achievable energy gain of two-mode mixing LPA for different rms bunch lengths as a function of the initial phase of the bunch center with respect to the maximum accelerating field. The effect of the multiple Coulomb scattering is shown in Fig. 6c, indicating a significant growth of the normalized emission in the second half of the stage.

Figure 6a and b show the results of simulations for the evolution of transverse normalized emittance ε nx from various initial values ε n0 at the initial phase Ψ 0 ¼ 0 and that of the relative energy spread σ γ =γ from the initial spread of σ γ =γ 0 ¼ 0:1
Figure 6a and b show the results of simulations for the evolution of transverse normalized emittance ε nx from various initial values ε n0 at the initial phase Ψ 0 ¼ 0 and that of the relative energy spread σ γ =γ from the initial spread of σ γ =γ 0 ¼ 0:1

Beam dynamics in multistage two-mode mixing LPAs

Seamless stage coupling with a variable curvature plasma channel A gas-filled capillary waveguide made of metallic or dielectric materials can

The change in betatron amplitude with respect to the initial amplitude in the k-th phase is given by. Considering the transverse emission of the particle beam with the initial energy spread dominating the decoherence, the normalized emission for t≫tdecis is given by. Note that the reduction of the acceleration field in the final phase results in a decrease in the normalized emission of the injected beam that matches the excitation field of the initial phase laser in the single phase.

Numerical studies of the single-particle dynamics in multistages

The cases shown in figure 8a and b naturally correspond to the exponential decrease in the normalized emittance with R

Considerations on electron-positron collider performance

Numerical results of beam dynamics study on multiphase two-mode mixing LPA (Figure 1a). a and d) the phase space kpx�γβxand the evolution of the normalized transverse emission kpεnx for 400 phases with each phase phase 0≤. It is observed that both beam-induced wake fields reach equilibrium after several stages consistent with the evolution of the normalized emission. The detailed study on the evolution of normalized transverse emission in LPA mixture with two multiphase modes is investigated for three cases with different phase phases, i.e., 0≤ Ψ ≤4:5π (case A), 0:45π≤ Ψ ≤4:7π (case B) and.

Conclusions

Therefore, the masses of the first family fermions are equal to 2n (in eV/c2) where n is an integer. This book chapter is a small summary of theoretical calculations of masses of elementary particles in real space [3-5]. The masses of the electron, electron neutrino and up quark (the first family of fermions) are equal to whole powers of 2 (in eV/c2) [3].

Dimensions of elementary particles

Thus, the remaining fermions of the Standard Model can be seen as excited states of the first fermion family. Theoretical calculations of the masses of the elementary fermions DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5772/intechopen.91846. In the next section, I will use the geometric dimensions of the elementary particles to calculate the masses of elementary particles.

Masses of elementary fermions

Masses of the electron, muon and tau The Dirac equation may be written

In the following subsection, I will use the previous hypotheses to theoretically calculate the masses of the elementary fermions. We multiply the mass of the first particle in this family by the eigenvalues ​​of the eigenfunctions (of the particle). The masses (theoretical and experimental) of the electron, muon and tau are summarized in Table 1.

Masses of the quarks For quarks, we have

The masses (theoretical and experimental) of the electron, muon and tau are summarized in Table 1. 3.2 Masses of the quarks For quarks we have. where are the Pauli matrices. The masses (theoretical and experimental) of the electron, muon and tau are summarized in Table 1. 3.2 Masses of the quarks For quarks we have. We multiply the mass of the first particle of the quark family by the eigenvalues ​​of the eigenfunctions (of the particle).

Masses of the neutrinos

Thus, we found the theoretical values ​​of the neutrino masses, which are in good agreement with the experimental masses (Table 3). In this chapter, calculations of the masses of all known elementary fermions in real space are made. In the final section, we review the early QCDPT universe with QGP production.

Elementary particles and basic forces

Quantum chromodynamics (QCD): strong interaction field theory

In our last section, the possible production of the QGP via relativistic heavy ion collisions (RHIC) with the possible detection of the QGP through the production of mixed hybrid heavy quark mesons is discussed. The production of the mixed hybrid states Ψð Þ2S and ϒð Þ3S via Au-Au collisions could detect the production of the QGP in the overlapping material. We conclude that the detection of Ψð Þ2S and ϒð Þ3S produced via RHIC could be a test for the creation of the early universe QGP.

QCD sum rules and mixed heavy quark hybrid meson states The starting point of the method of QCD sum rules [4] is the correlator

From Figures 1 and 2, the ratios of Ψð Þ2S to J=Ψð Þ1S for the standard model (st) and mixed hybrid theory (hy) for A-A (including Cu-Cu) collisions are. From studies of the production of the heavy quark state in p-p collisions, theoretical results were found for the nature of the ϒð Þ3S state [8]. Therefore, the ϒð Þ3S state, as well as the Ψð Þ2S state, has been shown to be a mixed heavy quark hybrid state.

The cosmological QCDPT and possible detection of the QGP

The quantum chromodynamic phase transition (QCDPT)

Theoretical studies and predictions for the detection of the QGP Theoretial studies of jet quenching due to the formation of the QGP were

Creation and detection of the QGP via RHIC

Then we discuss the creation of the QGP via RHIC Au-Au collisions with the possible detection of the QGP. Theoretical studies of jet quenching due to the formation of the QGP in high-energy Pb-Pb collisions [11] help to motivate experimental studies. A main goal of the study of heavy quark state production in relativistic heavy ion collisions (RHIC) is the detection of the quark-gluon plasma [13].

Conclusions

The results of the comparison of the production of Ψð Þ2S and ϒð Þ3S differential cross-sections with experiments confirm the theoretical prediction that the Ψð Þ2S and ϒð Þ3S states are mixed hybrid states. There are tests for making the QGP from jet quenching via Z-jet correlation experiments, as well as other tests suggested by theoretical studies. There are also possible tests of making and detecting the QGP through the production of Ψð Þ2S and ϒð Þ3S via relativistic heavy ion collisions, as shown in Figure 7.

Hình ảnh

Figure 6a and b show the results of simulations for the evolution of transverse normalized emittance ε nx from various initial values ε n0 at the initial phase Ψ 0 ¼ 0 and that of the relative energy spread σ γ =γ from the initial spread of σ γ =γ 0 ¼ 0:1

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