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beyond human-computer interaction - X-Files

Nguyễn Gia Hào

Academic year: 2023

Chia sẻ "beyond human-computer interaction - X-Files"


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Here, the user clicked on the arrow between the tadpole and the weed represented in the diagram. For example, one feature we have included in the book is a "dilemma" where a controversial topic is played out.


How to use this book

Chapter 1 What is interaction design? 1

  • More on usability: design and usability principles 20 .1 Heuristics and usability principles 26
  • CARD 309

Chapter 15 Design and evaluation in the real world: communicators and advisory systems 461

  • Introduction
  • Good and poor design
    • What to design
  • Good and poor design 5 multimedia applications, virtual-reality environments, speech-based systems, per-

Describe what interaction design is and how it relates to human-computer interaction and other fields. Allows you to evaluate an interactive product and explain what is good and bad about it in terms of the goals and principles of interaction design.

The makeup of interaction design

In the mid-80s, the next wave of computing technologies, including speech recognition, multimedia, information visualization, and virtual reality, offered even more opportunities for designing applications to support even more people. As further waves of technological development emerged in the 90s - networking, mobile computing and infrared sensing - the creation of a variety of applications for all people became a real possibility.

For example, Philips' Vision of the Future project found that its multidisciplinary teams responsible for developing ideas and products for the future had a number of problems, namely that project team members did not always have a clear idea of ​​who needed what information , when and in what form (Lambourne et al., 1997). In practice, the composition of a particular design team depends on the type of interactive product being produced. For example, the first interactive product would need:. a) graphic and interaction designers, museum curators, educational consultants, software engineers, software designers, usability engineers, ergonomists.

Interaction design in business

This means that a number of people from each area of ​​expertise are likely to work as part of the project team. Another established design company that practices interaction design is IDEO, which now has many branches worldwide.

What is involved in the process of interaction design?

The goals of interaction design

  • Usability goals
  • User experience goals

To summarize, usability is generally considered to ensure that interactive products are easy to learn, effective to use and enjoyable from the user's perspective. Very few people remember how to pre-record a program, largely because the interaction required to do so is poorly designed, with little or no feedback, and is often illogical from the user's perspective.

More on usability: design and usability principles

  • Heuristics and usability principles

Logical constraints depend on people's understanding of the way the world works (cf. the marble answering machine design). Norman introduced this concept in the late 1980s in his discussion of the design of everyday objects.

Further reading

Chapter 2

Understandin g and


Understanding the problem space 2.3 Conce p tual models

  • Conceptual models based on activities 2.3.2 Conceptual models based on objects

Interface metaphors 2.5 Interaction paradi g ms

From conceptual models to physical design

It is not something that can be done overnight by following a checklist, but requires practice in learning to identify, understand and research the problems, just like learning to write an essay or program.

Understanding the problem space

One implication of the study was that a new way of storing and retrieving Internet addresses was needed. The existing way of organizing saved (favorites) web addresses in folders is inefficient because it is time-consuming and error-prone. It's easy to lose web addresses by accidentally putting them in the wrong folders.

Conceptual models

  • Conceptual models based on activities

The first is based on the idea of ​​allowing the user to issue instructions to the system while performing tasks. The second is based on the user talking to the system as if he were talking to someone else. This conceptual model is based on the idea of ​​a person talking to a system, where the system acts as a dialogue partner.

Manipulating and navigating

For example, users can move around and explore aspects of a 3D environment (e.g., the interior of a building), while also moving objects in the virtual environment (e.g., rearranging the furniture in a simulated living room). Although direct manipulation and virtual environments offer a very versatile way of interacting, they also have some disadvantages. At the conceptual level, some people may take the underlying conceptual model too literally and expect certain things to happen at the interface as they would in the physical world.

Exploring and browsing

  • Conceptual models based on objects
  • Conceptual models 53
    • A case of mix and match?
  • Interface metaphors
  • Interaction paradigms
  • From conceptual models to physical design

Moreover, the sudden appearance of the recycle bin on the desktop can draw the user's attention to the additional functionality it offers. It has been argued that users can become fixated on their understanding of the system based on the interface metaphor. A number of user-centered methods can be used to create prototypes of potential candidates.

Chapter 3

  • What is cognition?
  • What is cognition? 75 Cognition has also been described in terms of specific kinds of processes. These
  • What is cognition? 77
  • What is cognition? 81
  • What is cognition? 83
  • What is cognition? 89 I
  • Applying knowledge from the physical world to the digital world
  • Conceptual frameworks for cognition
    • information processing
    • External cognition
  • Computational offloading
  • Annotating and cognitive tracing
    • Informing design: from theory to practice

The reason for this is that the information is very poorly structured at the end, making it difficult to find the information. It seems that in the above scenarios, they are running a mental model based on a general valve theory of how something works (Kempton, 1986). They can also rearrange objects in the environment, say creating different piles as the nature of the work to be done changes.

Chapter 4

  • Introduction
    • Coordination mechanisms
    • Designing collaborative technolo g ies to support coordination
    • Designing collaborative technolo g ies to support awareness
  • Ethnographic studies of collaboration and communication
  • Conceptual frameworks
    • Distributed cognition

For example, a speaker may say right at the beginning of their turn in the conversation that they have three things to say. Another innovation was to develop systems that allow people to communicate and interact with each other in ways not possible in the physical world. The coordinator is designed to make it possible to send electronic messages between people in the form of explicit speech acts.


In particular, the most successful use of Coordinator and its successors has been in organizations such as large manufacturing departments of companies, where there is a strong need for significant order management and where previous support was mainly in the form of a mixture of paper forms and inflexible data about specific tasks pro-. We also noted that there is considerable dissatisfaction with this approach, as it ignores how people interact with each other and their use of artefacts and external representations in their everyday and work activities. To remedy this situation, Ed Hutchins and his colleagues developed the distributed cognition approach as a new paradigm for conceptualizing human work activities (e.g., Hutchins, 1995) (see Figure 4.15).


This way of describing and analyzing a cognitive activity contrasts with other cognitive approaches (e.g. the information processing model) in that it does not focus on what happens inside the head of each individual, but on what happens across individuals and artifacts. User research essentially involves looking at how people behave either in their natural habitats or in the laboratory, both with old technologies and with new ones. AS: Well, I think there are two different classes of user research, and both are quite different in the way you do them.

Understanding how interfaces affect users


So, for example, when someone smiles, it can make others feel good and smile. It has been suggested that computers are designed to recognize and express emotions in the same way as humans (Picard, 1998). Our concern in this chapter takes a different approach: how interactive systems can be designed (intentionally and unintentionally) to make people respond in certain ways.

Expressive interfaces

The agents typically appear at the bottom of the screen when the system "thinks" the user needs help performing a certain task. The meaning of an emoticon depends on the content of the message and where it is placed in the message. Alternatively, if placed at the end of a comment in the body of the message, it usually indicates that this comment is not intended to be taken seriously.

User frustration

This can happen when you click on a link to a website and discover that it still exists. While the website owner may find such signals amusing, it underlines the viewer's frustration at having made the effort to go to the website only to be told it is incomplete (or in some cases hasn't even been started ). In this example, it is much better not to put material live on the web until it is complete and working properly.

Error Messages

It's very clear from what the system just did (close the application very quickly) that it just crashed, so such feedback is not very helpful. The adjective "unexpected" seems condescending, almost implying that it is the fault of the user rather than the computer. Comment How specific the advice given can be depends on the type of system it is.

Overburdening the user

A big frustration of mine is trying to run several websites over the years that required me to install a new plugin. Usually I am also redirected to another website where the plugin can be downloaded (see Figure 5.7a). Even if the correct plugin is downloaded and placed in the correct system folder, it may not work.


  • Dealing with user frustration
  • A debate: the application of anthropomorphism to interaction design
    • Kinds of agents

It is something that people do naturally in their daily lives and is often exploited in the design of technologies (e.g. creating human-like animals and plants in cartoons, designing toys with human features). An image of the person is also projected on a large screen so that he can be seen in relation to Silas (see Figure 5.10). Most of the characters are designed to be cartoonish rather than human-like.

Emotional agents

They usually appear on the side of the screen as tutors, wizards, and assistants that are meant to help users complete a task. Herman is a talkative, quirky insect that flies across the screen and dives into plant structures while giving students problem-solving tips (see Figure 5.11 on Color Plate 7). Users could change their mood (e.g. from happy to sad) by moving different sliders, which in turn changed their movement (e.g. they bounced less), their facial expressions (e.g. they stopped smiling) and how willing they were to smile to play. with other Woggles (see Figure 5.12 in Color Plate 7).

Embodied conversational interface agents

  • General design concerns

Are they the ones that try to be as human-like as possible, or the ones that are designed as simple animated cartoon characters. Other research has also shown that simple cartoon-like figures are more suitable than real people pretending to be artificial agents. If the agent is supposed to be angry, their body posture, movements and facial expressions should be included to show it.

Chapter 6

  • Introduction
  • What is interaction design about?

Describe some life cycle models of software engineering and HCI and discuss how they relate to the process of interaction design. Interaction design therefore involves developing a plan informed by the product's intended use, target domain and relevant practical considerations. Four basic activities for interaction design were introduced in Chapter 1, some of which you will be involved in when doing Activity 6.1.

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