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Current Advances in Anaerobic Digestion Technology

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Academic year: 2023

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High Flow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket (UASB) Technology for Energy Recovery: A Review on Recent and State-of-the-Art Technological Advances. Marcell Nikolauszis, a senior scientist in the Department of Environmental Microbiology of the Helmholtz Center for Environmental Research - UFZ, Germany.

Up-Flow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket (UASB) Technology for Energy Recovery: A Review on

State-of-the-Art and Recent Technological Advances

Introduction

UASB reactor is able to effectively treat various high-strength industrial wastewater (such as brewery wastewater [17], sugarcane wine liquor [18], paper mill wastewater [16], dairy wastewater [16]), characterized by high chemical oxygen demand (COD) ) concentration and significant biodegradability (high biochemical oxygen demand (BOD)/COD ratio). UASB reactor and anaerobic membrane bioreactor (AnMBR) are particularly indicated for the treatment of chemical-industrial wastewater [21].

Figure 1. Up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor process scheme.
Figure 1. Up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor process scheme.

UASB Reactor: Substrate Characteristics and Operating Conditions

The influence of the COD/SO42 ratio on the biodegradation of starch wastewater in a UASB reactor was studied in the work in [42] with a gradual decrease of the COD/SO42 ratio, indicating stable biogas production and satisfactory COD and sulfate removal to COD/SO42 ratio. SO42−≥2 [42]. The recommended range of upflow velocity in a UASB reactor is 0.5–1.5 m/h [11], even if values ​​above 1 m/h in conventional UASB systems can lead to pellet break-up and leaching of biomass, due to shear stress affecting the biomass [14].

UASB Hydrodynamics and Microbial Community

Recently, a high-rate reactor with external sludge circulation (ECSB) has been shown to be useful for high-rate, full-scale anaerobic treatment of cheese industry wastewater that can also handle high calcium loads [50]. Recent advances in high-speed AD include ICX (Internal Circulation Experience) systems, which have a two-stage separation system that allows excellent biomass retention [51].

Two-Stage UASB Anaerobic Digestion

In fact, a two-stage process was proposed in [71] to treat terephthalic acid-treated wastewater, with acidogenic and methanogenic reactors operating at different HRT, obtaining an improved pollutant reduction. A two-stage system, including a UASB reactor for H2 production and an IC reactor for CH4 production, was proposed in [66] to treat medical plant wastewater, obtaining a H2 yield of 3.0 L/L d in the UASB reactor (HRT=6 h) and a CH4 Production of 2.54 L/L d in the IC reactor (HRT=15 h) [66].

UASB Co-Digestion

Two-stage UASB treatment is also advantageous when dealing with substrates containing a fraction of readily degradable material together with a fraction of slowly degradable compounds. The HRT used in co-digestion studies is typically longer than that used to treat single substrates (as reported in Table 1), while again mesophilic operations are claimed for most of the tests.

UASB Application as Anammox Process

Modified UASB Systems for Bio-Hydrogen, Volatile Fatty Acids and Methane Production The original UASB configuration was modified in a number of scientific studies to satisfy a

Biochar can improve UASB performance in treating highly soluble substrates that rapidly produce VFAs: in a recent study, a biochar-supplemented UASB reactor treating diluted food waste paste highlighted significantly higher COD removal than a control reactor (77% compared to 47 %). , with improved biogas yield at OLR 6.9–7.8 kg COD/m3d [99]. A UASB reactor with microaeration can be a viable solution for reducing effluent toxicity, especially in the treatment of complex industrial wastewater: microaeration enables the removal of aromatic amines formed under anaerobic conditions [97].

UASB Treatment of Municipal Wastewater

Material recovery, which is particularly important in the case of phosphorus, can be combined with energy recovery, thereby increasing the sustainability of wastewater treatment. Moreover, it was demonstrated that the operating temperature in the digester never fell from the mesophilic range, even in the absence of solar production (due to poor irradiance) [118].

UASB Pre- and Post-Treatment

Enzymatic pretreatment is an environmentally friendly technique, compared to chemical methods, and was proposed in the work in [125] to increase the biogas yield from palm oil mill effluent (POME). A simple post-treatment with a surface aerator was finally proposed in the work in [130] as an energy-saving technique after UASB treatment of municipal wastewater from an Indian wastewater treatment plant.

UASB Reactor and Wastewater Toxicity

It can be concluded that UASB can be coupled to a wide variety of post-treatments, from conventional biological processes and simple aerators to advanced granular systems, depending on the desired efflent quality; In particular, microalgae have a high integration potential in WWTPs, due to the possibility to use the excess biomass for biogas production, leading to a circular cascade.

Critical Aspects and Future Perspectives

A significant number of studies have related treatment efficiency and biogas production to microbial community composition, providing deep insights into process understanding. Biogas and solar power integration is strongly recommended in the future to enable a significant reduction in GHG emissions, mitigate climate change and follow the proposed Sustainable Development Goals (SDG).

Conclusions

Integrated application of upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor for wastewater treatment. Hike. Operating Performance of Up-Flow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket (UASB) Bioreactor for Biohydrogen Production by Self-Granulated Sludge Using Pretreated Palm Oil Mill Euent (POME) as Carbon Source. Renew.

Technologies for Biogas Upgrading to Biomethane

A Review

Biogas Upgrading via Carbon Dioxide Removal Technologies

The mature technologies currently applied for biogas upgrading are illustrated in Figure 1. This technology has great potential for a new way of biogas upgrading, as the benefits of CO2 utilization can potentially overcome the cost of CO2 disposal and reduce the cost of biogas upgrading.

Biogas Upgrading via Carbon Dioxide Utilization Technologies

On the other hand, changing the nature of the catalysts to less reactive catalysts results in the production of methanol. The investment cost for a methanation plant can be assumed in the range of €652-785/kW; and operating costs amounted to about four percent [85].

Table 1. Improvement of catalysts in methane production.
Table 1. Improvement of catalysts in methane production.

Novel Technologies in Carbon Dioxide Conversion

Some of the bacterial strains and fermentation techniques that could possibly be integrated into SA fermentation technique are listed in Table 6. Furthermore, to implement this technology on a larger scale, further improvement of the simultaneous biogas upgrading and succinic acid production technology is needed.

Table 4. Performance of the system at different pressure and gas–liquid ratio.
Table 4. Performance of the system at different pressure and gas–liquid ratio.

Conclusions

Exogenous H2 addition for in situ biogas upgrading by biological reduction of carbon dioxide to methane. Use of the CO2-fixing bacterium Actinobacillus succinogenes130Z for simultaneous biogas upgrading and biosuccinic acid production. Environ.

Economic Perspectives of Biogas Production via Anaerobic Digestion

  • Current Practices—Anaerobic Digestion for Biogas Production
  • Methods
  • Results
  • Discussion
  • Conclusions

There is a wide range of biogas production values ​​reported in the literature for different types of wet waste. Co-digestion of pressed water and food waste in a bio-waste digester for improving biogas production.Bioresour. Anaerobic digestion of chicken feathers with pig manure or slaughterhouse sludge for biogas production.Waste Manag.

Figure 1. (a) Availability of wet wastes in the U.S.; (b) Wet waste energy potential in the U.S
Figure 1. (a) Availability of wet wastes in the U.S.; (b) Wet waste energy potential in the U.S

Material Characterization and Substrate Suitability Assessment of Chicken Manure for Dry Batch

Anaerobic Digestion Processes

Materials and Methods

Hydraulic conductivity first requires measuring the flow rate Q(m3/s) through the sample, which is calculated from the volume of water Vw(L) ​​passing through the sample material per unit time. It is calculated from the quotient of the flow rate Q(m3/s) multiplied by the height of the material sample (m) divided by the surface of the material in the oedometer A(m2) multiplied by the hydrostatic height(m). Biogas production took place in the spill digester and buffer tank inside the digester base (shown in Figure??).

Figure 1. Schematic illustration of the oedometer testing appartus.
Figure 1. Schematic illustration of the oedometer testing appartus.

Results and Discussion

An addition of 10% by mass of wood chips or 5% by mass of straw to chicken manure results in permeability properties of the raw material comparable to maize silage. This can cause dead zones in the lower part of the substrate material bed. The SMY of the straw variants was 6% higher compared to the control variant without addition of structural material and resulted in 135 ± 4 ml/g VS or 75 ± 2 ml/g FM.

Table 3. Permeability of chicken manure with and without structure material addition.
Table 3. Permeability of chicken manure with and without structure material addition.

Conclusions

Dry Anaerobic Digestion of Organic Waste—An overview of operational parameters and their impact on process performance. Metabolic performance of anaerobic digestion of chicken manure under wet, high-solids and dry conditions. Bioresource. Improving the exploitation of chicken manure via two-stage anaerobic digestion with an intermembrane contactor to extract ammonia. Bioresource.

Processing High-Solid and High-Ammonia Rich Manures in a Two-Stage (Liquid-Solid)

Low-Temperature Anaerobic Digestion Process

Materials and Methods 1. Feedstock and Inoculum

A volume of 25 L of liquid inoculum was fed into the individual liquid digesters in both cycle 1 and cycle 2. High methane content also suggested that the methanogenic population in the liquid inoculum reservoirs was enhanced for this substrate (CM+DM mixture). Contribution to the generation of ammonia lies not only in the initial concentration of the raw material, but also during the biochemical process in AD.

Table 2. Operating conditions of mono-digestion (CM) and co-digestion (CM + DM).
Table 2. Operating conditions of mono-digestion (CM) and co-digestion (CM + DM).

Influence of Enzyme Additives on the Rheological Properties of Digester Slurry and on

Biomethane Yield

Materials and Methods 1. Anaerobic Digestion Tests

To enable a comparison of both digesters independent of the specific methane yield of the feed, the relative deviation - i.e. the difference between both digestion tanks compared to the reference, digestion tank 3.2 - calculated. This result implies that the non-Newtonian behavior—i.e. the increased shear rate dependent on shear thinning - is more apparent for the digester with the enzyme additive. The effect of the enzyme addition on the apparent viscosity is higher at lower shear rates.

Table 1. Feedstock analyses of the substrates used.
Table 1. Feedstock analyses of the substrates used.

The Influence of Pressure-Swing Conditioning Pre-Treatment of Cattle Manure on

Methane Production

Comparing the methane production of the pre-treatment with respect to the reference, a significant difference (p=0.000) can be observed between the two approaches. The analysis showed a significant interaction effect between measurement time and methane production of PSC approach atp=0.000. The box plots show no difference between the methane production of the approaches.

Table 1 displays TS, VS, the final methane yields, and variation coefficients of BMP test after 29 days
Table 1 displays TS, VS, the final methane yields, and variation coefficients of BMP test after 29 days

Comparison of Dry Versus Wet Milling to Improve Bioethanol or Methane Recovery from Solid

Anaerobic Digestate

In terms of the chemical composition (cellulose, hemicelluloses, lignin and protein), no significant changes were observed before and after VBM of both dry and wet solid separated digestate (SS-DIG), as shown in Table 2. This improvement can be correlated with the decrease in both crystallinity and particle size as the ball milling time of dry SS-DIG increased. At the same time, VBM for 30 minutes led to a 31% improvement in methane potential compared to untreated SS-DIG.

Table 1. The main operational characteristics and performances of the agricultural biogas plant unit.
Table 1. The main operational characteristics and performances of the agricultural biogas plant unit.

Inoculum Source Determines Acetate and Lactate Production during Anaerobic Digestion of Sewage

Materials and Methods 1. Source of Inoculum

For the processes fed food waste (CO-F and WW-F), the overall hydrolysis efficiency was significantly lower (2% and 7% in WW-F and CO-F respectively) than in the sludge-fed processes (Table 2). Another limiting factor for optimizing acetate production from the food waste can be the level of available DOC in the substrate. The communities in both reactors fed mixed sludge differed from those in the reactors fed food waste.

Table 1. Origin of inoculum, substrate, organic loading rate (OLR), and hydraulic retention time (HRT) for the different reactors (week averages)
Table 1. Origin of inoculum, substrate, organic loading rate (OLR), and hydraulic retention time (HRT) for the different reactors (week averages)

Degradation of Veterinary Antibiotics in Swine Manure via Anaerobic Digestion

Methods

The volume of feed given every two days is measured based on HRT and our reactor volume. Since antibiotics are added to the water portion of the diet (not to the solid portion), the solubility of the VAs should be monitored. The CO2 concentration of the biogas was measured every eight days with a standard combustion analyzer (Bacharach Fyrite Classic Combustion Analyzer, New Kensington, PA, USA).

Figure 1. The scheme of the reactors, tubes transferring biogas and the incubator.
Figure 1. The scheme of the reactors, tubes transferring biogas and the incubator.

Extraction and Chemical Analysis 1. Sample Preparation

For jars with combined CTC and tylosin, samples were taken on both day 6 and day 10. The first three samples were taken from jars spiked with CTCs, at low, medium and high concentrations, sampled 6 days after the first addition of VAs. According to TissueLyser II (Qiagen, Venlo, The Netherlands), samples were incubated at 70◦C for 20 min with intermittent vortexing.

Table 5. The ionization mode, retention times and optimized precursor/product ions for analysis of the VAs by the developed LC-MS/MS method.
Table 5. The ionization mode, retention times and optimized precursor/product ions for analysis of the VAs by the developed LC-MS/MS method.

Results and Discussion

Because the tylosin results were more consistent than the CTC and Enrofloxacin results, the LC-MS/MS results of the digestate samples were closely examined. The detected tylosin concentrations of the three external standard samples were similar and showed a small deviation, Table 9. By using the external standard correction factor instead of the Enrofloxacin correction factor, the data are more consistent, especially for tylosin (less than 6% error).

Figure 2. Biogas production in 2017–2018, (a) #1 low, #2 medium and #3 high concentration, before and after adding CTC, (b) #4 low, #5 medium and #6 high concentration, before and after adding both CTC and tylosin, and (c) #7 w, #8 medium and #9 high conce
Figure 2. Biogas production in 2017–2018, (a) #1 low, #2 medium and #3 high concentration, before and after adding CTC, (b) #4 low, #5 medium and #6 high concentration, before and after adding both CTC and tylosin, and (c) #7 w, #8 medium and #9 high conce

Hình ảnh

Figure 1. Up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor process scheme.
Table 5. Advantages and critical aspects of UASB application, according to recent literature studies.
Figure 8. Potential products by using succinic acid (SA) as feedstock [95].
Table 5. Summary of the fermentation process using either B. succiniciproducens or A. succinogenes as bacterial strain.
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