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Cyberspace

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Nguyễn Gia Hào

Academic year: 2023

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Inquiries regarding the use of the book should be addressed to the Rights and Permissions Department of INTECHOPEN LIMITED (permissions@intechopen.com). dr. Alhadid served as the Director of the Training and Consultation Center at the University of Jordan, Aqaba Branch.

121 Text Mining to Facilitate Domain Knowledge Discovery

Introduction

50 since FY2004” [3] and stated “The increase in unit sales was primarily the result of Amazon's efforts to lower prices for customers, shipping offers, increased availability of in-stock inventory and more product variety” [3, 4]. Also, it may be noted that IEEE is replacing ACM in publications dealing with G5.

Timeline of Gs

In addition, (4542) research papers published in journals indexed in ACM and IEEE in the last 2 years discussed topics related to 5G as shown in Table 1. Fourth generation 4G and 4.5G LTE reached 1 Gbps and 100 Mbps using multiple-input, multiple -output orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (MIMO-OFDM).

Frequency regulations

Security: the Prague proposal

The 5G enabling technologies

The following sections discuss the three aspects of 5G: (1) regulation, (2) security and technology. makers), lighting in domestic and commercial settings, alarm clocks, loudspeaker systems and vending machines. Millimeter wave is an enabling technology for 5G and refers to the use of a super high frequency spectrum of 3.4 GHz.

Current situation—South Korea

Beamforming is a traffic signaling system for cellular base stations that identifies the most efficient data delivery route to a particular user, minimizing interference to nearby users in the process” [18]. The main purpose of beamforming is to send a signal from communication towers and small cells to the phone, while avoiding the obstacles such as buildings and trees, thus reducing the line drop or disconnection.

Conclusion

However, modern media offers a superior kind of cyberspace—the Internet—that we can use to not communicate. Ropolyi understands the next level of the Internet as a space for different types of communication.

Information as the basic unit of cyberspace

Similarly, Cejpek [7] distinguishes between information and knowledge when he says: "...in a more detailed view of given information, we have to distinguish between information and knowledge." Or, as he continues: "Information as such does not mean recognition, but constitutes a certain prerequisite and foundation." He bases his idea on Patočka, philosopher [7], who argued that "the concept of information cannot explain understanding and knowledge...". By comparison, we can place Růžička's facts to Cejpek's information and Růžička's information quality to Cejpek's knowledge Table 1.

Cyberspace as a new existential dimension of man

Pravdová [12] points out that "it is enough when images can be distinguished, as opposed to words, which must be understood." A similar situation is also happening in the age of the Internet. They are part of our life, not only at home, but also in the streets, offices and generally in any possible place we go.

Positives and negatives of formal influence of cyberspace

The use of information technologies and especially communication in cyberspace has its positive but also negative sides. The same goes for the internet which, unlike television, is interactive.

Conclusion

Eco even says that "to think means, in rhizome, to go forward blindly and rely only on assumptions." The Internet, characterized by its hypertext, or perhaps rhizomatic connection of information, will not support abstract, linear and logical thinking, which may pose a threat to modern society. It includes the research methodology from the study of the research strategy to the result dissemination.

Research design

Research methodology

  • The study area
  • Data sources

Therefore, this study uses a descriptive research design to reach agreement on the effects of an occupational safety and health management system on worker health, safety, and property damage for selected manufacturing industries. Therefore, this research design enabled the researchers to collect data from a wide range of respondents on the impact of occupational safety and health on manufacturing industries in Ethiopia.

Population and sample size 1 Population

  • Questionnaire sample size determination
  • Workplace site exposure measurement sample determination

The review also took into account data obtained from existing working documents, manuals, procedures, reports, statistical data, policies, regulations and standards. Overall, for this research study, a documentation review was conducted for this purpose and was refined and modified based on the manuals and documents obtained from the selected companies.

Data collection methods

  • Primary data collection methods
  • Secondary data collection methods

Responses to each statement were made using a five-point Likert scale, where 1 = "strongly disagree" to 5 = "strongly agree." Responses were summed to provide a score for the measures. It is proven with this pilot test prior to the start of the basic data collections.

Methods of data analysis

  • Quantitative data analysis
  • Qualitative data analysis
  • Data analysis software

Prior to screening, the investigator (principal investigator) reviewed a sample of more than 2,000 articles, websites, reports, and guidelines to determine whether they should be included for further review or rejected. Discrepancies were thoroughly identified and resolved before the main body review of over 300 articles began.

The reliability and validity analysis of the quantitative data 1 Reliability of data

  • Reliability analysis
  • Validity

In reliability analysis, it was checked for the stability and consistency of the data. The reliability of internal consistency is most of the time measured based on the Cronbach's alpha value.

Data quality management

Furthermore, the researcher presented the instruments to the research supervisor and the co-supervisor, both occupational health and safety experts, to ensure the validity of the measuring instruments and to determine whether the instruments could be regarded as valid at nominal value. A thorough inspection of the measurement instruments by the statistician and the researcher's supervisor and joint experts, to ensure that all concepts related to the study were included, enriched the instruments.

Inclusion criteria

In this study, the researcher was guided by reviewed literature related to compliance with the occupational health and safety conditions and data collection methods before developing the measuring instruments. In addition, the pre-test study conducted before the main study helped the researcher to avoid uncertainties of the content in the data collection measurement instruments.

Ethical consideration

The researcher therefore ensured in this study during the development of the instruments that uncertainties are eliminated by using appropriate words and concepts to improve clarity and general suitability [14].

Dissemination and utilization of the result

Conclusion

The focus is especially on the problem of our quality of life under its specific circumstances. In this context, the aim is also to identify different conditions, axiological indicators and the relevant elements of our quality of life in cyberspace.

Cyberspace of the internet as our living world

It is possible to say that the internet cyberspace as such has become our new living environment in which we communicate, learn, do business or are entertained. Reflecting the fact that internet cyberspace is a great means of self-expression and communication in today's society [9] and, as Cocking points out, that nowadays we present ourselves extensively when we perform many activities and relationships using of computer technology we can collaborate with asking the author of this article what kind of online identity and relationship it is actually possible to create [8].

Cyber experience in the internet dimension, values and risks that come along

We can therefore argue that anonymity and disinhibition are an individual and social risk in our cyber experience on the internet, impacting the overall value it brings. We should also notice the cyber experience of the construction of ME, or our identity, online.

Digital well-being and “good” life in the cyberspace of internet

Deuze also points out that we should not lose ourselves in the multitude of our own self-images and identities. We therefore believe that digital literacy should cover the new aspects of digital literacy that are beneficial to our lives in the context of internet cyberspace and digital well-being.

Conclusion

We agree with Deuze that we have an individual responsibility to understand what we are doing in Internet cyberspace. To conclude, who we are and how we live in the internet cyberspace is important.

Cyberspace and the strategic profile of hybrid operations

In this work, we address the relevance of cyberspace-based operations and AI for the implementation of hybrid strategies and reflect on what this cyber dimension of hybrid operations holds for the concept of what constitutes a cyberweapon, as well as strategies that benefit from the weaponization of cyberspace. We also cover the concept of human intelligence (HUMINT) operations and their role in hybrid operations, in particular how HUMINT has been used to support hybrid operations in the past and may play a key role in the present; this leads us to the conceptualization of hybrid HUMINT.

Cyber psychological operations and hybrid threats

This is exemplified by the Blue Whale Challenge, which exemplifies the power of what can be considered a gamification attack. In the case of the Blue Whale Challenge, the players were led to self-harm.

Hybrid HUMINT

From a counterintelligence point of view, the new dimensions of the threat posed by covert human agents require critical scrutiny. The first thing to emphasize is that the threat level for each state is very high; on the other hand, the operational advantage of the new breed of HUMINT agents is also very high, so from an intelligence/CI point of view, states need to invest in these new hybrid agents and find countermeasures for them.

A final reflection and possible responses

The Book of Ninja: The First Complete Translation of the Bansenshukai, Japan's Premier Ninja Manual. White or blue, the whale gets its revenge: a social media analysis of the Blue Whale challenge.

Deep learning-based architecture for false Twitter post detection 1 Introduction

  • Candidate deep learning architectures
  • Procedural requirements
  • Implementation architecture

Based on the aforementioned requirements, the baseline of the architecture chosen to be implemented follows the hybrid LSTM-CNN architecture [7]. Each LSTM in the layer is structured as shown in the lower part of Figure 1.

NLP-based architecture for Twitter post information extraction 1 Introduction

  • Fire incident detection
  • Fire incident aggregation and potential fire incident prediction .1 Overview

These samples were used to create a language model (template) referring to fire incident report. BRAND RELATED VERB> *+.

Overall proposed scheme for Twitter post-based fire burst detection Based on the system architectures presented in Sections 2 and 3, we propose a

Low threshold: The lower limit of the number of reports, below which these reports are considered unreliable. High threshold: The upper limit of the number of reports, above which these reports are considered very reliable.

Validation

Thus, Twitter post-processing is expected to work much faster than in the case of implementing a typical prior art NLP-based procedure. This is strongly related to the requirements of the deep neural network training procedure, as well as the nature of the problem itself.

Conclusions

After a while, actors, members of the pilot training, pretending to be citizens passing by, started posting reports about the fire incident they saw. After a while, the actors, members of the pilot training, similar to the first scenario, made posts about the fire incident on Twitter instead of the mobile app.

Appendices and nomenclature

  • Blind and non-blind methods
  • Watermarking in transform domains
    • Additive algorithms
    • Algorithms based on quantization
  • Wavelet-based methods
    • Dugad’s method
  • Non-blind watermarking
    • Miyazaki’s method
  • The proposed watermarking scheme
    • Watermark embedding
    • Watermark detection
  • The histogram of equal-area division quantization method in watermarking
    • Proposed DWT-HEAD watermarking method .1 Watermark embedding
    • Simulation results of HEAD quantization method
  • Conclusions
  • Structuralization of geological literature
    • Conditional random fields
    • Long short-term memory
  • Text information visualization and knowledge discovery 1 Information visualization of a single geological literature
    • Geological text mining for discovering ore prospecting clues
    • Geological text mining to assist database construction and knowledge discovery
  • Conclusion
  • Tags and Web 0 objects
  • The tag recommendation problem
  • Candidate tag generation
    • Keyword extraction from texts
    • Tag co-occurrences
    • Tags from neighbors
  • Candidate tag ranking
    • Tag quality attributes
    • Learn-to-rank-based tag recommendation

This method allowed detection of the watermark without access to the original undamaged image. In [14], tag recency is calculated as the inverse of the frequency at which the tag is used in the collection.

Table 7 presents the PSNR and NC for the proposed method and the other two methods using Lena image
Table 7 presents the PSNR and NC for the proposed method and the other two methods using Lena image

Nalini and L. Jabasheela

  • Review of literature
  • The Bully-latent Dirichlet allocation (B-LDA): model design
    • Monte Carlo Gibbs sampling
    • Experiments and results
    • Results and discussions
    • Performance evaluation
    • Comparison of weighted B-TFIDF with baseline method
    • Victim and predator identification
  • Summary

To calculate P(z,y,x|w), the posterior distribution of subject, victim assignments and the motive of the predator given the words in the corpus. Bully words were assigned to the same subject and the motivation of the predator can be calculated as,.

Hình ảnh

Table 7 presents the PSNR and NC for the proposed method and the other two methods using Lena image
Table 7 presents the PSNR and NC for the proposed method and the other two methods using Lena image
Figure 5 shows the main information hidden in a single literature of geophysical exploration
Figure 1 illustrates a MovieLens page containing textual features assigned to an  object (a movie, in this case).
+2

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