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The Dummies' GuiDe To Software Engineering Rosina S Khan

Nguyễn Gia Hào

Academic year: 2023

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Quality assurance is similar in that monitoring and controlling the process of a software development system helps meet its quality goals. In fact, software development does not stop once it is developed, but continues to evolve throughout the life of the system.

Professional Software Development

Acceptability: Software must be acceptable which means it must be understandable, usable and compatible with other systems that users use.

Software: Problems and Prospects

The cost of software is influenced by the productivity of the software developers and their salaries. It is clear that the cost of testing is huge, while coding is only a small part of software development.

Software Crisis

Remedy: Software Engineering

Software Engineering Ethics

It can even become part of the contract between the system buyer and the software developer. For example, functional requirements specify what service the system will provide, how it responds to certain inputs, and how it should behave under certain conditions.

How to Elicit Requirements

It transforms the user's view of the system as an organized representation of the system as seen by the analyst. A requirements definition is a clear statement, usually in natural language, of what the system should actually provide to its user.

Requirements Specification

Listening includes the needs or requirements of the system users, asks them about the goals and limitations of the system, and finally records their views on the system requirements.

Structure of a Requirements Specification

Use Cases

Use Case Diagrams

User Interface Design

A well-designed interface does not require the user to remember much as it would make them more error-prone when interacting with the system. More details should be presented after the user has expressed interest with a mouse click on a certain level.


So what really matters here is the size and complexity of the components and their interactions. However, the user of the stack does not need to know how the stack is implemented.

Architecture-Based Design

All system components get access to all data in the system, which is stored in a central repository. Each processing component in the system acts as a filter and performs a single type of data transformation as data flows from one component to another like a pipe.

Fig: 3.3: A repository architecture for an IDE
Fig: 3.3: A repository architecture for an IDE

Pattern-Based Design

Structural patterns are associated with how classes and objects are integrated to build a larger structure. Implementation: There must be special issues when patterns are implemented, and these must be considered.

WebApp Design

The look and feel should be pleasant, but not too overwhelming (the use of too many colors will distract the end user instead of enabling him to interact). The user must be able to navigate the WebApp without searching for navigation links or instructions.

Fig. 3.8 : Linear Structure
Fig. 3.8 : Linear Structure

WebApp Architecture

Navigation Design

Horizontal navigation bar: displays main content or functional categories in a bar containing appropriate links. Vertical navigation column: displays main content or functional categories or displays virtually any major content object that can be expanded in the WebApp. Tabs: represent a metaphor that is nothing more than the variation of a navigation bar or column.

Component-Level Design

Sitemaps: provide a table of contents for navigation to all content objects and functionality contained in the WebApp. In addition, icons and graphic links, audio and visual feedback, color of text-based navigation, etc.

Object-Oriented Hypermedia Design Method (OOHDM)

Object-Oriented Design Using UML

This is critical to deciding how to provide the necessary system functionality and how to structure the system to communicate with the environment. Setting the system boundaries helps you decide which functions are in the system being designed and which functions are in the associated systems. An interaction model is a dynamic model that shows how the system interacts with the environment when it is used.

Data Flow Design

A data flow diagram of the main data flow for this software is shown below. The next step is to convert the data flow diagram into a structure diagram or structure diagram. Let's now look at a patient monitoring system and see how to convert a data flow diagram into an equivalent structure diagram or structure diagram.

Waterfall Model

The full waterfall process method is like a series of small waterfalls because each stage produces a product before it can flow like water to the next stage. An error discovered at a stage cannot be resolved by going backwards in the waterfall process model described above. A variation of the process model is therefore to provide feedback to the previous stage so that errors found in a stage can be corrected by going back to the immediate previous stage.

Table 4.1: Waterfall Process Steps
Table 4.1: Waterfall Process Steps

The Spiral Model

The spiral model takes into account areas related to the above-mentioned uncertainties and therefore minimizes the risk for the software project. Finally, an evaluation is conducted to find out if the project is on track and if the entire development team and customer(s) are satisfied.


Incremental Development

Open Source Software Development

Due to the openness of the program code, the community has imposed its own license agreement for use on open source products. However, the openness and sharing of code does not mean that the open source products are always free to buy. Development communities and product websites are sources of support for users of open source products.

Agile Methods and Extreme Programming

They are best suited for developing applications where system requirements change rapidly during the development process. Instead, the system customer is part of the development team and discusses scenarios with other team members. The customer's role in the testing process is to help develop acceptable tests for the stories that will be implemented in the next release of the system.

Table 4.2: Principles of Agile Development
Table 4.2: Principles of Agile Development

The Unified Process

The initial phase of UP consists of both customer communication and planning activities. The architecture will be refined into a set of models that represent different views of the system. To ensure this, the requirements and design models started in the drafting phase are finalized to reflect the final version of the software increment.


Towards the end of the project, members leave the team until finally the project is over and the team quits. The project manager is usually a member of the team and in control of the team. A core programmer is a highly skilled software engineer who develops essential parts of the system.


Basic Metrics

Complexity Metrics

To measure the cyclomatic complexity of the program, we need to count the number of conditions and add one to them. This program segment has a cyclomatic complexity of 2 because it has one if condition and we add 1 to it to give the complexity of 2. Note that if a program only has a sequence of statements, it will have a cyclomatic complexity of 1, however long it is. is.

Faults and Reliability (Estimating Bugs)

Software Quality

Portability - The effort required to transfer software to another hardware and/or software platform. Reusability - the extent to which software (or its component) can be reused in other software. Security - the extent to which the software is safe from external sabotage that can damage and hinder its use.

Quality Assurance

Not every one of the above features may be required by any piece of software. For example, black box testing, white box testing, and a walkthrough should be used to verify each component of the software. Depending on the quality factors of the project, quality controls should include the following functions as shown in Table 6.1.

Process Development


Project Inception

As we have already defined, a process model is a model that serves as a project plan or framework. Similarly, the project manager must select a suite of tools and techniques that fit the process model. For monitoring, what is happening must be visible, so that reliable information about the state of development is available.

Cost Estimation

Nevertheless, it sometimes becomes necessary to make an initial cost estimate so that a decision can be made about the feasibility of the project. An estimate of the software development costs is compared to the financial value of the benefits that will occur. If the benefits are greater than the costs, the project will continue otherwise it is cancelled.

Selecting Tools and Methods

It assumes that the effort required to develop a piece of software depends on what the software does, that is, how many functions it implements. Function points are another name for use cases, which we mentioned at the end of Chapter 2. What is the skill level required by the people who will be using the method.

The Project Plan

While the technical advantages of development methods are important, practical considerations sometimes determine which development approach to use. The cost of software tools associated with a particular method.. 104 . to identify the most important activities in the project. Next, the major activities are divided into smaller tasks and figures for assigned efforts.

Managing People


The level of trust required depends on the purpose of the system, the expectations of the system users, and the marketing environment for the system. Inspections and reviews analyze and check the system requirements, design models, program source code, and even proposed system tests. The purpose of release testing is to check that the system meets customer requirements.

Development Test

When you're testing object classes, your tests should cover all of the object's features. This type of error is common with parameter interfaces where the parameters are of the wrong type, or are passed in the wrong order, or the wrong number of parameters can be passed. System testing involves integrating components to create a version of the system and then testing the integrated system.

Test-Driven Development

This interaction testing should reveal component failures when one component is used by other components in the system. This means that the test can be run and will report whether it passed or failed. Therefore, you can be sure that all code in the system has actually been executed.

Release Testing

Requirements-based testing is a validation rather than a defect test – you are trying to validate that the system has implemented its requirements adequately. Performance testing must be performed to ensure that the system can handle the intended load. 117. run a series of tests where you increase the load until system performance becomes unacceptable.

User Testing

However, if this is the case, the acceptance test is complete and the system can be handed over. In that case, the client and developer must negotiate to decide if the system is good enough to deploy. This is a stage when developers and customers hold a meeting to decide if the system is good to accept.


Alternatively, the software customer may issue a contract to another company for system support and development. During development, the software is used successfully and there is a constant stream of proposed requirements changes. During the service phase, the software is still used, but only tactical changes are made to it.

Evolution Processes

A decision is then made based on the changes that will be implemented in the next version of the system. The author has written an academic guide to databases at free-ebooks.net, titled, "Dummies Guide to Database Systems: An Assembly of Information." The author has written another academic guide on Compilers at free-ebooks.net, titled, "Dummies Guide to Compiler Design".

Hình ảnh

Fig: 3.3: A repository architecture for an IDE
Fig 3.5: An example of Pipe and Filter architecture
Fig 3.6: An example of transaction processing application systems
Fig. 3.8 : Linear Structure

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