In Chapter 1, we begin with the solution of Maxwell's equations with appropriate boundary conditions to obtain the electric and magnetic fields, and the rest of the parameters of interest in an electromagnetic engineering problem. Here the properties of the media such as the electrical permittivity and the magnetic permeability of the constitutive relations can be represented as complex numbers, where the electrical and magnetic losses are considered in the imaginary part.

Fundamental concepts

## Electromagnetic model of a material

These causal systems are important because the Kramers-Kronig relations can be used, which relate the real and imaginary parts of the electrical permittivity and the magnetic permeability. The numerical techniques can now allow the calculation of the Hilbert transform to test the electrical permittivity model of the material.

## Electromagnetic wave propagation

The material can be considered as a system, with a specific transfer function, and this system is usually considered causal in physics and from the point of view of the study of signals is called linear and time independence (LTI) [3]. More primitive and intuitive it can be formulated as follows: the effect cannot precede the cause [5].

## Organization of the book

In this chapter, the different methods for measuring the electrical properties of the soil are discussed. Another way to obtain the electrical properties of the ground is by measuring the impedance in the frequency domain of a transmission line known and built for this purpose.

## Introduction

It's not just the case that matter affects the propagation of light - or more specifically electromagnetic (EM) radiation - it's also the case that light affects the matter through which it propagates. Conversely, this affects the propagation of light through the medium, but in a much more specific way; this effect is a function of the properties of the material and of the incident EM radiation.

## Understanding dispersion

In addition, the centers of the balls on each band are separated by 10 cm and 12.5 cm, respectively. The same principle is also related to the color of the flame produced by the molecule [1].

## Plasmonic dispersion

Assuming a sea of free particles in vacuum [4], the strength of the Lorentz force on a point charge is expressed as. Below the plasma frequency, the value of the k vector becomes purely imaginary, meaning that the electric field is purely evanescent - and non-propagating -.

## Dispersion in conductive media

Things are different in the presence of an electric field, e.g. figure 8, where the electrons are pulled in the opposite direction of the electric field. This can be combined with Ampère's law, where the curvature of the magnetic field creates a time-varying electric field, so that.

## Modal dispersion

This is when the speed of different modes changes as a function of the input wavelength. This means that the phase speed of the wave changes within the waveguide.

## Chromatic dispersion

Intermodal dispersive time evolution of a more commonly used rectangular pulse in a multimode rectangular waveguide. Group velocities of transverse electric (TE) modes in a rectangular fused silica waveguide as a function of wavelengths in the visible spectrum.

## Intramodal dispersion

The first system is a system of laser width and decaying atoms and spontaneous thermal processes that reduce monochromaticity. The second system is the system of delays introduced in the fiber waveguide channel with respect to the wavelength contributions of the input spectrum.

## Conclusion

The electrical properties of the soil are very important for various sciences such as telecommunications, electrical engineering, geophysics and agriculture. The frequency domain technique with transmission lines is based on the reflection coefficient measurement of the transmission line.

## Fundamental concepts

From a macroscopic point of view, in most of the dielectric material, when the electric field is canceled, the polarization in the material will be canceled. In addition, the polarization of the material will vary as the electric field varies, i.e. P Eð Þ.

## Transmission line fundamentals

The literature contains the measurement of the dielectric properties of soil at different frequencies with slotted lines and time-domain reflectometry (TDR) methods [15]. The coaxial probe technique terminated in the material under test was used to measure the dielectric properties of the vegetation.

## Time-domain measurement method of dielectric permittivity and conductivity of soils (TDR)

The conductivity of the soil can be determined by calculating the reflected pulses in the probe in a time-domain plot (see Fig. A plot of the voltage as a function of time for the probe is in the soil [26].

## Measurement method of dielectric permittivity and conductivity of soils in frequency domain

The picture of the voltage as a function of time for the probe is at ground [26]. where V0 is the TDR pulse amplitude;. The method of measuring permittivity and dielectric conductivity of soils in the frequency domain. where c m=s½ is the speed of light; ϵ is the electrical permittivity of the soil under test.

## Dielectric measurement by the characteristic impedance of a transmission line in frequency domain

*Determining ϵ and σ from the propagation constant The propagation constant γ can be written thus [11]**Measurement procedure of the ϵ and σ**Transmission lines used**Correction error produced by the connector of the transmission line It is important to perform the correction of the impedance introduced by the**Results and discussion .1 Method of measurement**The Seebeck Coefficient**The electrical conductivity**Power factor**Objectives**Electrical conductivity and Seebeck coefficient measurements*

The series resistance of the conductor of the coaxial transmission line used is Rinﬃ10�3Ω=m fð ¼100MHzÞZL¼0. ZijZL¼0¼jZ0contgð Þβx (49) where x is the length of the connector on the corresponding transmission line.

### Experiment

Before placing these samples in the resistance furnace for heating, the silica tubes were placed in a vacuum line to evacuate the argon and then sealed. The air sensitivity of these samples was checked (for one sample) by measuring the thermoelectric power and confirmed that these samples are not sensitive to air.

### Results and discussions

*Ternary system .1 Structural analysis**Physical properties**Quaternary System .1 Structural analysis**Physical properties*

The calculated power factor is directly proportional to the square of the Seebeck coefficient and the electrical conductivity. The temperature variation as a function of the Seebeck coefficient (S) for Tl9Sb1-xSnxTe6.

### Conclusion

Crystal structure, electronic structure and physical properties of the new low-valent thallium silicon telluride. In the case of molten salts, Sundheim discovered that the ratio of the partial conductivities of cation and anion was always equal to their inverse mass ratio, namely σ+(DC)/σ(DC) = m/m+[4].

### Generalized Langevin equations for the cation and anion in a molten salt

From this we will see what is similar and what is different in the case of. During such a long history of electrochemistry, it was generally accepted by Kohlrausch that the experimental results of the ionic conductivity in dilute electrolytic solutions indicated the law of independent migration of ions, Λc=Λ0kc1/2, where Λ0 is the conductivity in the dilute limit and c is the concentration and k is the constant specified by the electrolyte.

### Linear response theory for the partial conductivities

On the other hand, according to our previous investigations, the partial DC conductancesσ+(DC) andσ+(DC) are expressed as follows,. If an appropriate memory functionγ(t), which is valid for both cation and anion in the system, is considered and its Laplace transform is inserted into either (36) or (37), then we can get the partial AC conductivity.

Method of continued-fraction based on Mori formulae

The method of Copley and Lovesey [36] was able to express the short time expansion for the rate correlation function Z(t) (=< vi(t) vj(0)>) described as in the following form:. Instead of the continued fraction method described above, in the next section we provide a simple but new method to obtain the interrelationship between the combined velocity correlation function Zσ�(t) and γ(t) in a short time range.

### Fluctuation dissipation theorem on the Laplace transformation of γ (t) Considering Eqs. (56) and (57), the memory function γ(t) can be taken as the

On the other hand, the memory function and its Laplace transform are described as in the following forms, using the fluctuation distribution theorem [6-9],. Therefore, the general form for the memory function γ(t) is always written in the form of Eq.

Therefore, the general form of the memory function γ(t) is always written in the form of Eq. Previous Theories of Rate Correlation Functions in Molten Salts Various analytical forms of memory functions were proposed. Previously, we have already performed the MD simulation for the combined velocity correlation functions Zσ�(t) [7].

### Discussion and conclusions in the case of molten salts

On the other hand, there are two types of rather unstable short-range configurations, as shown in Fig. 4a and b, respectively, in which the surrounded Cl� ions around the Na+ ion are spatially asymmetric. In full, the local configuration types of the Cl�ions around the focused Na+ion are listed in Table 1.

### Generalized Langevin equation in electrolytic solution

It is possible to consider that stable short-range configurations appear to be of two types. It is possible to consider that stable short-range configurations appear to be of two types.

Linear response theory for electrolytic solutions

### Short time expansion of velocity correlation functions in electrolytic solutions

In the next section, we will discuss rate correlation functions described in terms of intermolecular (or ionic) potentials and pair distribution functions to obtain the ~γ�(0). However, these equations can be used to derive ~γ�(0) as shown in the next section.

And in a similar way the significant terms of (88) for average must also be equal to the case i6¼i' = j. In other words, the first term on the right side of this equation means the case of dilute limit of electrolytic solution and the second one is equal to the effective friction caused by the addition of a moderate amount of electrolyte.

### Partial conductivities σ + and σ �

112) And the Laplace transform of this equation in the long wavelength limit is equal to. 112) And the Laplace transform of this equation in the long wavelength limit is equal to. 113) in (79), we obtain the formulas for the partial conductivities, σ+andσ�, which are expressed in terms of the pair distribution functions and the pair potentials as follows [28],.

### Pair potentials in electrolytic solution

On the analogy of the inter-ionic potentials in molten salts, ϕ+�(r) in aqueous solution, where the dipole-dipole and dipole-quadrupole dispersion forces are neglected, can be given as follows:. 125) where A+� is a constant in relation to the magnitude of repulsive force between cation i and anion j. Let us now assume that the repulsion potentialϕrep+w(r) is represented by the root mean square of 4C(dw/r)12and A++exp[B++(d++ d+- r)] as follows:.

### Momentum conservation and the tag of water molecules by ion ’ s movement

We will investigate the tag of water molecules by moving ions in the electrolytic solutions from the point of view of equation of motion under an applied field E [28]. Some water molecules can be simultaneously attracted to the dissolved ions under an external field E.

### Numerical results in electrolytic solutions

Pairwise distribution function of water molecules around the Na + ion, gNa-w(r) in NaCl electrolyte solution. Distribution function of pairs of water molecules around the K+ ion, gK-w(r) in KCl electrolyte solution.

### Discussion on the electrical conductivities in electrolytic solutions The present theory seems essentially comparable to the treatments developed by

And numbers of localizing water molecules around a K+ ion within the sphere of length r centered on its K+ ion, nK-w(r), in its solution obtained by MD simulation. It is known that the electromagnetic radiation of the optical spectrum of the short wavelength region (ultraviolet radiation) is very active in the body.

### Methods and installation for studying the paths of penetration of optical and, in particular, ultraviolet radiation into the animal’s body

Installation block for the investigation of spectral optical characteristics of animal cover. Third, in the study of the optical radiation spectrum system, there is a need for variable optical systems.

### Investigation of the light conductivity of individual wool from pigs In studies devoted to the study of the laws of penetration of optical radiation

Investigation of the light conductivity of individual wool of pigsIn studies devoted to the study of the laws of penetration of optical radiation. The results of experimental studies of the light conductivity of a single wool under the skin of an animal.

### Investigation of optical characteristics of skin and wool cover animals Given the biological significance of radiation that reaches subcutaneous body

Photographs of light transmittance of single wool from different animals: (a) horse tail, (b) pig hair, and (c) a hair follicle. The study of the percentage of radiation penetration efficiency through the clothing structure (through skin and wool.

### Investigation of the percentage efficiency of radiation penetration through the structure of the coating (through the skin and the wool

Investigation of the percentage efficiency of radiation penetration through the structure of the coating (through the skin and the wool through the structure of the coating (through the skin and the wool cylinders) in the body of the animal. The influence of the medium-strength electric forces (MSE) on the proliferation of adherent chick embryo fibroblasts (CEF), VERO, MDBK, MRC-5 and HeLa;.

### Material and methods

*The electric impulse generator device PGen-1**The dosimetry**The cells used in the experiments**Cell multiplication**The cell treatments with the electric impulses**The growth parameters determination .1 Growth index (GI)**Viability assay**Statistical evaluation*

The electric field strengths that are above 500 V/cm can provoke the sustained reaction as in the case of electroporation. The adsorbed doses (AD in J/g) of the electrical impulses in the samples were according to Pakhomov et al.

### Results

*The growth parameters, percentages of dead cells, and percentages of Caspase-3 positive cells of different monolayer cells**The growth parameters, percentages of dead cells, and percentages of Caspase-3 positive cells of the in suspension growing cells*

In the case of Vero cells, after 24 hours of incubation and one pulse, the percentage of Caspase-3 positive cells was 7.7%. In the case of Vero cells, after 24 hours of incubation and one pulse, the percentage of Caspase-3 positive cells was 7.7%.

### Discussion

*The influence of one or three square impulses with field force of 100 V/cm on different cells growing in monolayer**The influence of one or three square impulses with a field force of 100 V/*

The reduction in the percentage of dead cells was from 2.9% after one pulse to 1.7% after three pulses. The percentage of Caspase-3 positive cells after 72 hours in FB1 lymphoblast cells was 2.1% after one pulse and decreased to 1.7% after three pulses.