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Front Office Operations and Management

Nguyễn Gia Hào

Academic year: 2023

Chia sẻ "Front Office Operations and Management"


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Traditional vs. Revenue Distribution / 122 Functional Department Management Teams / 123 Special Feature: Hotel Career Management / 126 Chapter Review / 130. PBX (Private Branch Exchange) / 146 About My Job: Concierge Manager / 147 BX About my Operator /: 150 Guest Service Attendant - Front Office.






The author would like to thank the professionals who contributed their time, expertise and knowledge to the planning and writing of this textbook. Currently serving as a university instructor and working in the meetings industry, he holds a BA in International Management from Gustavus Adolphus College in St.



The first lodging facility that can be directly considered a predecessor of the modern hotel was the City Hotel, built in New York in 1794.6 It is an important milestone in the development of accommodations, as its sole purpose was to accommodate guests. Wilson coined the popular phrase "The best surprise is no surprise." Because of this philosophy of consistency, Kemmons Wilson is recognized by many as the founder of the modern hotel chain.


Wilson, is said to have followed the same business model when creating his hotels. The proliferation of limited-service brands such as Econolodge, Motel 6, and Red Roof ushered in a new era of low-cost, quality lodging.


In these cases, the owner can entrust the operation of the hotel to a franchise company. It should be noted here that hotel chains can be involved in the ownership of a hotel.


Sleeping Rooms

Meeting/Function Space

Outlets/Ancillary Revenue Sources

The combination of the two translates into outlet sales and ancillary revenue streams. In hospitality, the financial health of a hotel is measured by the strength of the three components of the success triangle.

Profit Margin

Room Cost

To best understand the profit analysis, it is useful to compare it to the costs of other products sold in the hotel. As the analysis of the triangle of success showed, the sale of food in catering and at points of sale can be a great source of income.

Food Cost

The simplest way to understand this is that the food cost percentage is the percentage of profit absorbed by the actual cost of the item. Simply divide the purchase price of an item by the menu price and you have the food cost percentage.

Opportunity Cost

Therefore, the contribution of the item for sale must be factored in before pure profit can be calculated. Of course, the amount of time a food item can be stored will depend on many factors.

Captive Audience Quotient

A group catering contribution is defined as a catering activity acquired by a hotel, where all or most of the visitors stay in the hotel itself. A local seminary may have a few dormitories connected, so it is not connected to a group.


In this case, the hotel has excluded any group business from booking because most groups have functions attached to their bedrooms. Of course, having empty bedrooms means that the profits from the sale of the room will not be realized.

PERSPECTIVE Usage of Function Space Jamie Doyle

It can be argued that a large part of a hotel's business can come from local traffic - enough local traffic to have a significant impact on both the sales/support and catering parts of the success triangle.


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Choose another hotel chain and get any printed material about their beginnings and history. What unique did you learn about this chain that you didn't know before?

Hotel Web Site Home Pages





Receptive customers may feel they have received a special return for their money if they perceive a value in the product or service they have purchased beyond what the general population might perceive. There are a few hotels on the market that use the term "resort" in their name to basically trick the customer into believing that they offer some sort of special attraction.


In the resort environment, this value can be derived from recreational skill improvement (some resorts offer "schools" that teach golf, tennis, skiing, and other sports). In the United States, Seattle, San Francisco, and Los Angeles are considered gateway cities to Asia and the Far East.


Suburban hotels often thrive in environments where decreasing demand in the city reduces the importance of a hotel's location type. This compression leads to increased occupancy of the hotels that are not normally affected by the demand in the city centre.


Demand compression is the theory that the need for hotel rooms in a city or geographic region will remain static and fairly constant, regardless of occupancy (see Figure 2.4). A city-wide convention can occupy all the rooms in the downtown area, while normal or average demand for temporary and other group spaces remains fixed.

Service Level

The definitions of full service versus limited service illustrate the differences in service level we have discussed. In most markets, increased service level will be associated with an increased price (room rate).

Target Market

In fact, the standard target markets consist of the same segments that make up the service level product type classifications. The extended stay hotel target market is one of the fastest growing in the industry today.


All Suite

Meetings & Conventions Magazine Gold Award, Gold Key Hall of Fame, Gold Platter Award, Gold Tee Award. The Paragon Award for Corporate Meetings and Incentives, Gold Connections Conference Planner Circle Premium Award.



To fulfill a need, be it a room for the night, be it a meal, or an activity, a hotel is there to serve people. By understanding who these guests are and what their characteristics are, a hotel can better serve them.


Group Rooms

Transient Rooms

In the temporary sales arena, the individual booking cycle dictates historical temporary demand levels. While the group basis can be booked well in advance, the individual booking cycle can be shorter.

Transient Reservation Avenues

How group and transient rooms reach the hotel (booking paths) and their general impact on rates is crucial for further understanding. To fully exploit the benefits of group and transient rooms, it is important to understand their characteristics.


Group Market Segments

Corporate Segment

Association Segment

Other Segment

SMERF components, which can be large or small, tend to charge lower fees than corporate or association segments.

Transient Market Segments

Business Segment

These programs offer repeat guests earned points that can be redeemed for some kind of reward. Some business guests become so loyal to a hotel chain's program that they may pay higher rates or stay at a lower quality facility to earn points.

Pleasure Segment

Resorts can cater to individuals, couples or families, often resulting in higher weekend demand and weaker weekday traffic. Family resorts can cater to their market by offering activities for children and more affordable rates.


How do the goals or motivations of the transient business guest differ from that of the pleasure guest.


The Golden Bay Star Hotel”



They needed to know why they were in this situation and how it would be remedied. He had to report to the owners and wanted a solid plan from the hotel to improve performance.


The senior salesperson at the Star, Frank Nevins, had been employed since the property opened. The owners were in the fifth year of their current management contract and had to act quickly.

Points to Consider

Reputation—word of mouth or other forms of advertising may have driven the manager's decision. The preceding goals or motivators may have triggered the purchase decision in the driver, or something else may have.


Other factors—the driver may have sought out the convenience store in Station B, he or she may have known the owner, he or she may have been going there for years out of habit, he or she may have chosen it because it was brightly lit or closer to the home or any number of other reasons. The point of this case study is to think about what drives a buying decision.


World Wide Web Travel Sites

Hotels try to create a guest room that evokes a feeling of home in the resident. The bedroom is considered the most important product for sale in any hotel.


Room Types

Although not universal, rates for single occupancy rooms will often be lower than those with two people in a room, or double occupancy room rates (see Figure 4-2).

Room Configurations

King Room

Double/Double Room

It is becoming increasingly rare for hotels to refer to their bedrooms as "standard". Hospitality marketing executives have started a trend of referring to the standard configuration rooms as "deluxe" or "superior". The thinking behind this trend is that consumers can see added value in these names, leading to a greater willingness to pay higher rates. It is understood that the enhanced configuration includes more amenities and/or services than the standard configuration.

Marriott Suite

Hospitality Suite

Luxury Suite

Presidential Suite

Most reception configurations in older hotels are much too high for people in wheelchairs; they need to be lowered. Hotels should make an effort to ensure that adequate parking is reserved for the disabled at entrances and that all curbs are also wheelchair accessible.

Room Designations

Room Numbering

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If everyone wanted the same car, these manufacturers would not need to diversify their product lines.

Room Status Reconciliation

Unusable - The room has been removed from inventory for a specific reason (eg repairs or renovations). When determining room occupancy and cleanliness, a room status code is assigned.

Room Status Codes

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Most hotels now offer in-room voicemail in addition to text messages taken by PBX. The television in the room usually offers a variety of movies available to watch at the guest's convenience.


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PERSPECTIVE The Role of Architecture in Hospitality


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The bold architecture and exaggerated features, such as the swan and dolphin structures mounted on top of the buildings and the bold triangular shape of the Dolphin hotel, create an attraction within the Disney attraction itself. He also collaborated on the design of the Arizona Biltmore, which opened in 1929 and was known as.

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An example of this is the recent development of Jumeirah Beach Resort in the Persian Gulf emirate of Dubai.6. The weather in this region of the world can be inhospitable with occasional sandstorms and temperatures that can reach 130°F.


How would you rate your level of understanding of the differences between room types and room rates. Are they "hard blocked" from the time of booking or are they assigned on the day of arrival by the reception.

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Hotel Design Web Sites

For each group, the organizational chart describes the positions and responsibilities of each team member. Unlike a team roster, which defines the position each team member will assume on the field, an organization chart helps identify and direct the management team.



Rooms Division

The room department is a functional area within the hotel that includes reception, housekeeping, reservations, night control and loss prevention. The management philosophy of the hotel can also influence the organizational structure of the rooms department.

Front Office

Most people don't know what goes on behind the scenes of room sharing. The following chapters deal with the other departments for room allocation - namely housekeeping, reservations and night audit.



Even though housekeepers wear uniforms, they are not considered uniform services in this definition. area and has an indirect reporting structure.

Night Audit

Loss Prevention/Security

Food and Beverage


Credit can be extended to certain guests and groups, so the front desk and sales/catering must understand the role of accounts receivable. Of course, as already mentioned, there is a large overlap between night audit and the front desk.

Human Resources

In fact, reservations must also understand the role of credit, as initial reservations may be made with certain credit terms. The new hire orientation process ensures that new hires understand basic hotel philosophies and processes before they begin their first day of on-the-job training.


Housekeepers are encouraged to report problems with a guest room's plumbing or electrical systems immediately to engineering for repair. The front office staff are usually the first to notice problems with the hotel's common areas, as they are usually located in the lobby.

Sales/Marketing and Catering

Engineering works very closely with housekeeping to maintain the quality of the physical guest room.


The temporary sales team (reservations) with its "dotted line" reporting structure to the rooms department is in frequent contact with the front office. The group sales efforts, as discussed in previous chapters, book groups into the hotel.


These relevant facts may include an early check-in, which would affect housekeeping, or a late checkout, which would affect reception. If the group is on their own for lunch on a given day, food/beverage outlets will want to know in advance to prepare for a possible higher volume.


Top Level Management


Working with numbers and spreadsheets and switching between computer programs to complete reports for our corporate office all became part of my daily routine. So, my time as a general manager has been consumed for the most part creating and implementing the best incentive plan any of my employees have ever experienced, an incentive plan that rewards and motivates, one that makes every one of our employees want to work then. day.

The Executive/Leadership Team

Rooms Division Manager/Resident Manager

It became apparent that this resident manager's after-hours responsibilities would focus on bedrooms due to the 24-hour nature of hotels. Today, in most hotels, it is rare to find the resident manager resident in the hotel, but due to the age-old responsibility of coordinating the operation of room-related hotel functions, the title remains.

Director of Food and Beverage

Some hotels have started using the title head of rooms or director of rooms for this position instead.

Director of Marketing

The second attempt simply means that the follow-up communication is made with the guest who reported the initial program. The front desk should contact the guest and ensure that the situation is resolved satisfactorily.

Director of Human Resources

Ownership is our pride, the building and everything in it is our work of art.

Director of Engineering


Director of Grounds

Director of Recreation

Department Heads

Rooms Division Department Heads

Director of Services. The director of services can be thought of as the "behind the scenes" version of the front office manager. Although not directly part of the front office, the Director of Services is responsible for ensuring that the quality and cleanliness of the hotel rooms and common areas are up to standard.

Food and Beverage Department Heads

Director of Catering. The Director of Catering is responsible for the catering side of the hotel's sales efforts. Director of Convention Services. The Director of Convention Services (often abbreviated CS) is responsible for serving all group meals.

Sales Department Heads

He or she often works closely with the Director of Transitional Sales to maximize overall room sales. In the analysis of the food and beverage department, the director of catering was reviewed.

Engineering and Human Resources Department Heads

Often, the Director of Group Sales is personally responsible for key/focus accounts that have important and/or long-term impact on the hotel. Again, the director of transient sales is depicted with a dual reporting structure because reservations have a significant impact on the room division.

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Accounting Department Heads


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The director of operations essentially combines the responsibilities of the director of food and beverage and the resident manager. Sometimes referred to as an assistant general manager or a senior assistant manager, the director of operations position is often seen as a stepping stone to the general manager position.


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Management Training Programs




Cross-Departmental Experience

A sales manager can bring a wealth of knowledge of the intricacies of groups to the front desk.


One-Year Plan

Five-Year Plan

Do they want to become front office managers or move into food and beverage soon. Individuals interested in hotel food and beverage should look to Restaurant Business, Cuisine, and Hotel Restaurant magazines for similar insight.

Ten-Year Plan

Start right away by asking your superiors how they got to where they are and how long it took them. It's a good idea for all professionals to periodically review their profiles to ensure accuracy and make changes to reflect where they want to be.


Of those six, those that are considered front of the house and those that are in the back of the house. Request a copy of the organization chart of a full-service hotel in a downtown area and a full-service hotel in a resort area.

Hotel Career Web Sites

It is said that 75 percent of a guest's overall satisfaction with a hotel is determined during this process.


Stage One—Greeting

The next person who comes into contact with guests and others arriving at a hotel is the doorman. The door person assists with the transition from the arriving vehicle to the lobby area (see Figure 6-1).

Stage Two—Transition

In smaller hotels, the doorman's role may be included in the bellstaff's duties. Once in the guest room, members of the bell staff must explain the features of the room and the hotel itself.


Briefly show them the phone and explain how to reach the PBX operator and how to reach the bell if necessary.

Stage Three—Registration


During their conversation, the guest's name should be used at least twice, again, constantly reinforcing the commitment to the guest's satisfaction. Assuming that the payment method has been determined, the employee must give the room key to the guest.

Determining Method of Payment

Financial information—bank account history, number(s), and bal- ance(s), IRS status, and the like

Independent references—companies such as Dun & Bradstreet can, for a fee, provide financial background and credit ratings for organizations

In many hotels, the group's sales and catering department has a list of organizations approved for direct billing, provided by the accounting department. Major chains are known to pre-approve large accounts for direct billing at all member hotels.

Stage Four—Completion


PBX (Private Branch Exchange)

In order for all elements of the arrival chronology to work effectively, the hotel itself must be well designed. In this diagram, hotel guests can easily move from each stage of the arrival chronology.

Guest Service Attendant—The Front Office Hybrid

That GSA helps the guest to the hotel and takes him to the room. This process requires a pre-registered guest who does not need to go to reception for any reason.

Group Arrivals

Report room and tax (SRT). This arrangement allows the group to pay room and tax for the participants. Everyone pays for themselves (EPO). This payment method stipulates that group participants must pay all their expenses.


Front Desk Checkout

Once the bill reconciliation has been completed, the employee will ask if the guest needs luggage assistance. The receptionist would then end the process by thanking the guest for choosing their hotel and asking him/her to return again in the future.

Guest-Directed Computer Checkout

The front desk clerk should offer to make a reservation for any guest who indicates a possible return to the area.

Automated Checkout



The reception must immediately pass these matters on to the sales and catering department of the group to ensure follow-up. Most hotels have areas behind the reception that serve as a central meeting place for employees and managers.


The relationship between the front office and housekeeping is essential to successfully maximizing room revenue. The arrival and departure reports generated by the front desk manager are often reviewed by the housekeeping manager to ensure that room status reconciliation is flawless.

Value-Added Services

Front office managers do their own labor forecasting using long-term room forecasts (60 to 90 days out). Senior hotel management also reviews labor forecasts to ensure labor costs are well managed.

Safe-Deposit Boxes

Items that are too large to be placed in the safe may be placed in the hotel safe at the discretion of the front desk manager. It should be noted that hotels assume a certain level of responsibility by offering a safe deposit service.

Mail and Document Handling

When the safe is checked in, the guest completes a "safe deposit" form, which is usually printed on the back of the safe deposit registration card. The hotel may conduct random audits to ensure that all safes are working properly.

Operations Administration

When handing over the box, the front office manager must check that the box is actually empty. Some hotels will post signs claiming "no responsibility for lost or stolen articles." The deposit registration cards may contain similar sayings.

ABC Hotel

Front Office Manager Responsibilities

These are very detailed and time consuming groups. concluded) opined that these types of groups needed someone dedicated at the front desk to look after all their specific needs. It was over these 2½ years that I gained the perspective I needed to lead at the front desk.

Shift Checklists

Please note, the emergency report is run several times during the day by reception managers. An emergency report lists all guests present, guests arriving/departing, room statuses, and rate information.


Using the general rule for bell staffing, how many employees are required each day based on the following.

XYZ Hotel Résumé—Regional Home Builders Association

Cornell Hotel & Restaurant Administration Quarterly . Visit our website at for additional hospitality and travel marketing information.

Trade Journals/Online Resources

They are qualified in that large amounts of discretion are allowed in what rates are implemented and when. Later chapters deal with how and why these room rates are implemented; this chapter provides background on their origins and an overview of the most prevalent room rates in today's marketplace.


The Hubbart Formula

What the Hubbart formula does different from a strict room cost analysis is to include a fair market ROI for the investor. When comparing the Hubbart formula to the room cost calculation, the results are similar, but not the same.

Cost Rate Formula

The flexibility of this calculation allows the hotel manager to apply different rates to different room types and configurations. Again, assuming that the better rooms are the larger rooms, a higher average price could be applied to the better room types.

Market Tolerance


Volume Account Rates—Also called preferred rates, the volume account rate trades a further discount on the corporate rate in exchange for a guaranteed number of room nights within a specific time period. Weekday/Weekend Rates—Hotels of all location types see fluctuations in demand during certain days of the week.

Hình ảnh

Figure 2-7 illustrates the generic price versus service relationship in rela- rela-tion to the different product types
Figure 3-4 illustrates how both group- and transient-market segments come together to make up guest room demand.
Figure 4-11 and Figure 4-12 present hotel blueprints that, even though the actual room numbers had not been assigned at the time these were made, are useful in gaining a clearer picture on how guest rooms are initially laid out.
Figure 6-4 illustrates what a sample direct billing application might look like.

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