Inquiries regarding the use of the book should be directed to the INTECHOPEN LIMITED rights and permissions department (firstname.lastname@example.org). The origin of this growing concern can be traced from a period when industry became one of the protagonists in the transformation of the city (Rossi, ).
Landscape reclamation: a multiplicity of activities towards sustainable development
Unfortunately, it is still common to find older buildings, typical of industrial society, simply abandoned, next to recent areas of development. In the study, the project-based renewal projects that have been realized in Kayseri province and the changes in the urban landscape on an urban and structural level have been compared in terms of uniform structuring, densification, destruction of the green system, privatization of public space and gentrification.
In recent years, economic developments, but especially neoliberalism, have placed the cities in the focus of the economy. The transformation in the urban landscape through the project-based urban renewal projects was analyzed together with the transformation planning processes using the theoretical basis developed.
The change of urban renewal pattern
Urban renewal projects
The urban revitalization refers to "the process through which the disagreement between the services offered by the texture of the old regions and the contemporary needs can be eliminated" . The urban rehabilitation refers to “the large-scale interventions aimed at restoring and updating a lost or degraded function.
Project based urban renewal
The rehabilitation process includes different types of interventions ranging from the territory and urban areas to the building itself." The main objective of rehabilitation projects is to improve the conditions of the current stock of buildings, infrastructure, as well as to protect the original character of the urban texture and remove the physical stock that causes urban decline . Property-led development can be defined as "the pooling of finance, land, building materials and labor to produce or improve buildings for occupation and investment purposes" .
The change of urban renewal pattern in Turkey
Higher-rise (twelve to twenty-four stories and more) residential typologies, often built with prefabricated techniques and rationalized construction processes Residential towers, malls, hypermarkets brand new fringe cities 2000/today Urban land has become highly commoditized. the regulation of land market has become an important asset of governments. to prepare a legal basis for new investments for land development in urban development projects through privatization of state land. announcement of urban transformation and development projects. According to this law, "the municipality shall implement urban transformation and development projects in order to create residential areas, industrial zones, commercial areas, technoparks, recreational areas and any kind of social strengthening areas, to reconstruct and repair the deteriorating parts of the city, to protect the historical and cultural structure of the city, and to take risk measures against the earthquake."
Urban renewal and changing Kayseri city
After 2012, urban renewal has become one of the most frequently discussed problems in the process and practice of Turkish urbanization. Until the year 2000, we can say that the processes of urban renewal were developing according to plan (Table 3).
Findings and discussion
- Homogeneous architecture and urban environments
- Possible gentrification
- Extreme densities
- No interest by developers
- The regions have seen a mission developer
- The deterioration of urban open space system
- Privatization of public open spaces
These projects, which are developed in the urban green system, damage the integrity of the system after the transformation in the area (Figure 5). At first, these open spaces were only part of the projects architecture.
The city dwellers' perception of the "publicness" of the urban space also plays an important role in the formation of these projects. The urban landscape is a complex structure which is the result of the interaction between man and his surroundings. The assessment criteria for urban renewal projects: The case of the Fener-Balat districts of Istanbul (Doctoral dissertation).
In doing so, it emphasizes the regional cultural connotation and continues the study of the ancient village culture.
Overview of ancient villages 1 Cai fan ancient residence
Longtan ancient village .1 Overview of Longtan village
The buildings in the old village are ancient and well preserved, fully reflecting the Huizhou style of the buildings and the southwest residential characteristics and excellent architectural craftsmanship. This cultural identity and patriarchal religion is reflected in the concept of geomancy, landscapes, natural awe and cultural awareness. This is verified by the famous ancient houses and the Huawu residences at the front of Longtanzhai's human landscape analysis.
Ways of intervention of art in the planning of ancient villages3.1 Construction of the home museum of the ancient village.
The ways for art to intervene in the planning of ancient villages 1 Constructing the ancient village native museum
Construction of cultural ecotourism
The word "eco" was prefixed with the word, and the concept of the eco-museum was born. The "ecology" of the eco-museum emphasizes not only the natural ecological environment, but also the human ecological environment. The uniqueness of the ecological landscape of ancient villages is, in the final analysis, the uniqueness of cultural ecology.
The audience group is favorable to improve the popularity and influence of ancient villages.
Art mining to build the cultural consciousness of ancient villages
In terms of interior decoration, the ancient villages in Taihu Lake can be decorated with decorative paintings, such as the history of ancient villages, the customs, the characteristics of scenic spots, local specialties, field minors, folklore traditional dance, self-entertainment dance, sacrificial dance, etc., to decorate the inner wall for appreciation by tourists. In this way, not only the ecological landscape of the ancient villages has been improved, but also the tourists have a comprehensive understanding of the knowledge and protection of the ancient villages, which is a kind of living protection.
The tremendous changes taking place in the ancient villages of the Water City fully prove that the power of art can infuse ancient villages with new vitality and achieve sustainable development without overly commercialized tourism. This theme uses art as a medium to examine the ecological landscape paradigm of ancient villages. In the practice of building the ecological landscape design of the village, its purpose is to strengthen the regional cultural connotation and continue the study of ancient villages.
At the same time, the topic analyzes the ecological landscape of two ancient villages, to further explore the practical application of art media expression in the ancient village landscape, to arrive at the theoretical framework of the paradigm for the construction of the ecological landscape of ancient villages.
Art involved in the construction concept of Caijing and Longtanzhai ancient villages
Pay attention to the geographical environment and ecology of ancient villages Due to the mountainous conditions, the Cai fan and Longtanzhai ancient villages
Consider the safety and commercial circulation of residents
The ecological landscape planning of ancient villages should be based on the modern environmental planning and Feng shui design
The structural layout design paradigm of the ancient village should reflect the original ecology
The social value of art intervention in the construction of Cai fan and Longtanzhai ancient dwellings
The landscapes of the ancient villages of Cai fan and Longtanzhai in Taihu County are backed by mountains. The construction of the ecological landscape of ancient towns must take into account the safety of life. The structural layout of Taihu Ancient Village and Longtan Village is the wisdom that reflects the wisdom of ancient residents.
The second is to contribute to the protection of the ecology and the construction of the landscape.
This is because such activities lead to the clearing of the mangrove forest and other coastal vegetation. Evacuating the tree stumps leads to the loss of many soil organisms from their habitat. This leads to damage to the health of aquatic and terrestrial organisms around the reclaimed area.
An example is the establishment of the liquefied natural gas (LNG) plant on Bonny Island in the Niger Delta region of Nigeria.
- Risk perceptions of wildfire
- The biophysical context
- The sociodemographic context
- The sociocultural context
This chapter synthesizes findings from research exploring fire risk perceptions as they reflect changes in the social values of the forest surrounding the study communities. An important consideration in WUI is that fire risk may increase due to forest harvesting and fragmentation, inappropriate landscape decisions, and flammable house building materials [26–29]. The growing evidence that the public recognizes the ecological role of fire suggests that additional factors influence attitudes toward fuel treatment methods, decisions to live in high-risk locations, and other factors related to fire risk perceptions and mitigation activities.
To examine the values associated with wildfire perceptions and risk management, we consider the three dimensions of fire risk described above: biophysical, sociodemographic, and sociocultural.
Still, sociodemographies are important in the WUI, where social and landscape changes can lead to conflict in the sociocultural context of wildfires . Traditions, attitudes, beliefs, and value systems of WUI populations are part of the wildfire socio-cultural context. The sociocultural context of risk underlines both freedom of choice and the social construction of wildfire and preparedness (also ).
Social institutions (i.e. insurance, government and companies) are a critical aspect of the sociocultural context because they are key players in the management of risks .
Fire risk is a fusion of ecological and technological drivers further complicated by big budgets, political lobbying and media amplification. Within the sociocultural context, inward migration is an important characteristic of many interface areas even though WUI is not determined by population change. These differences may manifest in competing notions of aesthetics, land use and community growth, natural resource management, and strategies for addressing fire risk.
Themes were compared within and across cases in each state and then across the four states.
- Risk perceptions
- Biophysical context
- Sociodemographic context
- Sociocultural context
For example, a rural Minnesota resident stated, “The Pagami Creek fire didn't smoke in Ely. Two themes dominated the sociodemographic context: (1) population change and (2) economic shifts. Although respondents showed some level of confidence in the ability of state and local governments to fight wildfires, they expressed less confidence in the federal government to implement wildfire treatment and prevention programs.
Although interviewees indicated a degree of confidence in state and municipal governments' ability to fight wildfires, they expressed less confidence in the federal government to implement wildfire treatments and prevention programs.
Public perception of wildfire risk and forest management in the central pine forests of Long Island (US). The paper argues that looking at the data presented, the resilience or ability of the Terengganu coastal landscape to maintain its ecosystem services for the foreseeable future may have been compromised. For example, changes in grass types in the pasture area reduce the ability to continue to function ecologically (such as in water use and nutrient cycling) under heavy grazing by animals .
Examples of typical soil series (Rudua and Rhu Tapai soil series) under beach ridges interspersed with gullies (BRIS) system on the east coast of Peninsular Malaysia make up more than 90% of the sand.
Changes in coastal landscapes and implications for ecosystem services
- Ecosystem services of coastal landscapes
- Threats to gelam forest and coastal landscape of Terengganu The coastal ecosystem of Terengganu is at risk of disappearing if there
- Changes in the coastal landscapes of Terengganu (Years 2000–2017) Based on images of Terengganu vegetation cover for years 2000 and 2017, it is
- Impact of coastal landscape changes on ecosystem resilience and social environment
This plant is highly dependent on the existence of the coastal wetland of Gelam Marsh and is abundant only during high water levels (0.5–2 m) . Thus, small-scale illegal sand mining could interfere with key ecosystem services of the coastal ecosystem through the removal of sand and vegetation. Considering the dynamics of the Terengganu coast, it is recommended to adopt a Coastal Sustainable Land Use Planning (SLUP) strategy.
The reduction of vegetation cover in some parts of the coastal areas of Terengganu may be due to the removal of vegetation for aquaculture activities and settlement construction.
To ensure coastal sustainability, significant efforts must be made to maintain the ecological infrastructure or the multifunctional network of ecosystems formed by coastal wetlands . It is clear that SLUP enhances coastal resilience so that the coastal ecosystem can continue to provide important ecosystem services, particularly for the benefit of the coastal community. Second, given that throughout history there are very few landscapes in the world that have not been shaped by local communities , to what extent has local knowledge shaped the features of the gelam landscape?
A better assessment of the landscape could be carried out to incorporate an analysis of the general public's perception into development planning .