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Additional information is available at the end of the chapter http://dx.doi.org/10.5772/intechopen.72304. For example, The Economist [10] stated that the fourth industrial revolution is only an evolution of the third industrial revolution. Search string used in the literature survey was "Industry 4.0." The string is defined according to the standards of Scopus database.

Therefore, it is crucial to invest and technologically advance in research centers, which are the lifeblood of the industrial system.

Figure 1. Industrial revolutions.
Figure 1. Industrial revolutions.

Opportunities of Industry 0

Companies should take advantage of the opportunities CPS offers to generate added value from the collected data to meet customer needs. Another great opportunity created by Industry 4.0 is the strengthening of national production in Europe and North America. The main objective of the strategy is to ensure that Chinese production is oriented towards innovation and greenness.

Figures 12 and 13 show the quantitative effects of the benefits of Industry 4.0 applications, taking into account efficiency gains and cost reductions, while Figure 14 describes the quality benefits of Industry 4.0 applications.

Figure 7. Main initiatives for Industry 4.0 (source: IL sole 24 Ore magazine).
Figure 7. Main initiatives for Industry 4.0 (source: IL sole 24 Ore magazine).

Qualification and skills of Industry 4.0

Information and data of all kinds will be ubiquitous and within reach of employees, leading to a whole new level of knowledge management. It is necessary to define a model to identify the operator skills needed in the factory of the future, from a school and after school point of view. The ideal would be to create educational courses necessary for the introduction of the systems behind the factory of the future, to prepare future employees.

The cooperation of university companies, which makes it possible to adapt the student profiles to the requirements of the companies, is very important.

Conclusions

Workshops can not only deal with technical issues, but also improve soft skills (self-management, teamwork, stress management, etc.) that are fundamental for a worker. They include not only technical aspects, but also interdisciplinary models such as personal skills and teamwork. In conclusion, it is worth noting that in order to face the challenges of the future, the digitization of production processes and the implementation of intelligent automated systems that can manage themselves are of strategic importance.

The commitment should be extended not only to companies, but also to governments, whose task is not only to develop investment plans that are easy for companies looking to innovate their processes, but also to train young workers from secondary schools through compulsory computer science, automation and foreign language modules, to create a new generation of “workers 4.0” who have the hard and soft skills needed to work in the intelligent factory.

Author details

Communication should start from high school, through school-work alternation and by providing basic knowledge of computer science and robotics, to make it clear to young workers the trend we are moving towards. In addition, business, economic and financial opportunities that can be exploited through the implementation of Industry 4.0 systems have been described. The chapter has also gently introduced the most important intelligent factory technologies such as big data and cloud data analysis systems, cyber-physical systems that manage self-regulating operations by intelligent robots, simulation systems and allow virtual reality to train addictive operators, and additive manufacturing to develop more and more customized products that meet the needs of the customer.

Only in this way will it be possible to properly implement the new practices of Industry 4.0 and the technological progress of companies and the entire civilization.

Available from: http://www.roland-dberger.com/media/pdf/Roland_Berger_TAM_COO_Insights_E_20150113.pdf. 22] Industry 4.0: Opportunities and challenges of the new industrial revolution for developing countries and economies in transition. 2014 Available from: http://www.strategyand.pwc.com/media/file/Industry-4-0.pdf [24] Accenture and General Electric.

Available at: http://www.accenture.com/SiteCollectionDocuments/PDF/Accenture-2014-Manufacturing-Skills-Training.pdf, last accessed 1/18/2015.

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A Research Agenda of Industry 4.0 from the Czech Perspective

A Research Agenda of Industry 4.0 from the Czech

  • Introduction
  • The Czech Republic in a nutshell
    • How digitalization drives value
  • The state of the digital economy in the Czech Republic
    • Digital progress
  • A national digital agenda framework
    • Czech digital agenda
    • Policy practices
    • Public financing via existing operational programs
  • Best practices in the Czech Republic related to Industry 4.0

Due to the concentration of the Czech "industrial" economy, the impact of Industry 4.0 is significant. The performance of the Czech Republic is slightly below the average of EU member states in most dimensions. The Czech Republic has one of the highest shares of industrial production per GDP among EU countries (about 32% of GDP) [8].

Moreover, a significant part of the total turnover of enterprises derived from e-commerce contributes to a stable position of the Czech Republic in the field of e-commerce among EU member states. Based on these identified values, the rest of the chapter follows that defines and identifies the current state of the digital economy in the Czech Republic. An international view of the state of the digital economy in the Czech Republic is provided by the Digital Development Index.

The use of video on demand was unusually low, placing the country at the bottom of the ranking in the EU. The Czech Republic scores slightly above the average of EU member states in terms of investment and access to finance. The long-term goal of the Industry 4.0 initiative is to preserve and strengthen the competitiveness of the Czech Republic at the beginning of the fourth industrial revolution.

The platform was established under the leadership of the Digital Coordinator of the Czech Digital Agenda established by the Government Office. There is a lack of broadband coverage in some regions of the Czech Republic. The program falls under the SME support programs for the period of implementation by MIT of the Czech Republic in cooperation with Czechinvest (Investment and Business Development Agency).

We assumed that part of the basis of the low entrepreneurial culture performance stems from a negative image of entrepreneurship in the Czech Republic.

Table 1. DESI ranking.
Table 1. DESI ranking.

Acknowledgements

It can be argued that the debate on Industry 4.0 brought a new stimulus to the spread and use of new technologies in society. But there are two levels of perspective - many companies in the manufacturing, finance and service sectors see great potential, but currently there is considerable "reluctance" of companies (eg, SMEs) with Industry 4.0. Many Czech companies already use and fulfill some of the elements of the Industry 4.0 concept.

In addition to companies in the automotive industry (as the top leaders in technology and digitization in the country), we mention, for example, the electrical engineering, pharmaceutical or chemical technology industries. In summary, three German companies in the Czech Republic are at the forefront of the 4.0 revolution. In this chapter, we examined that the Czech Republic was part of the moderate opportunity group and is in a position of catching up and convergence.

Its success lies in the country's extensive access to IT skills acquired through formal education or provided through on-the-job ICT skills training. Also, the majority of the population has little interest in setting up a business or taking over an existing one. Available at: http://www.plattformi40.de/I40/Navigation/DE/Industrie40/Handlungsfelder/For schungInnovation/forschung-und-innovation.html [Access.

Available from: https://www.vdi.de/artikel/vdi-schreibt-referenzarchitektur-fuer-industrie-40-fort/ [Access. Selection of our books indexed in the Book Citation Index in the Web of Science™ Core Collection (BKCI).

Human Capital in the Smart Manufacturing and Industry 4.0 Revolution

  • An overview of Smart Manufacturing and Industry 4.0 revolution
  • Future competencies for smart manufacturing
  • Human capital in Smart Manufacturing and Industry 4.0 revolution
  • Education in Smart Manufacturing and Industry 4.0 revolution
  • Organisation culture
  • Government
  • National knowledge management
  • Rewarding human capital in Smart Manufacturing and Industry 4.0 revolution
    • Spoil them and let them fail
    • Surround them by semi-boring people
    • Involve them in meaningful work
    • Eliminate pressure from employees
    • Do not overpay employees
    • Surprise employees
    • Make employees feel important
  • Conclusion

In the Smart Manufacturing and Industry 4.0 revolution, it is predicted that more manufactured products will be smart products and Cyber ​​Physical Systems (CPS). The supply chain characteristic of the Smart manufacturing revolution and Industry 4.0 is highly visible, integrated and continuously mapped physical flows on digital platforms. Social media play a key role as a supporting technology in the Smart Manufacturing and Industry 4.0 revolution [2].

Digitization of production inevitably leads to high financial and technological efforts for smart production and the Industry 4.0 revolution. A central element of smart manufacturing and the Industry 4.0 revolution is the full digitization of planning and the exploitation of data. How can we align education, knowledge and skills with those of smart manufacturing and the Industry 4.0 revolution?

Such countries and organizations that invest in and reward their people compete effectively in the Smart Manufacturing and Industry 4.0 revolution. Human capital management in the Smart Manufacturing and Industry 4.0 revolution provides workers with clearly defined and consistently communicated performance expectations. Human capital represents the collective value of competencies, knowledge and skills of the Smart Manufacturing and Industry 4.0 revolution.

In Smart Manufacturing and Industry 4.0 revolution, it is not possible to just get rid of them (employees). In whatever form or structure, rewards must be seen to motivate and retain the creative human capital for the Smart Manufacturing and Industry 4.0 revolution. The chapter provides strong evidence of the important role that human capital plays in the Smart Manufacturing and Industry 4.0 revolution.

This is because the Smart Manufacturing and Industry 4.0 revolution provides a space where interactions between workers and machines are the order of the day.

Figure 1. Not only the competitiveness of higher education system that plays critical role, but  also right from early childhood education (Pre-school), primary, secondary, vocational and  tertiary education that ensures a country’s competitiveness in its
Figure 1. Not only the competitiveness of higher education system that plays critical role, but also right from early childhood education (Pre-school), primary, secondary, vocational and tertiary education that ensures a country’s competitiveness in its

Manufacturing Transformation toward Mass

Customization and Personalization in the Traditional Food Industry

  • Theoretical framework and social background of manufacturing transformation and mass customization
  • Japan’s sake industry and market
  • A case of new mass customization and personalization in the sake industry: Sekiya Brewery Co., Ltd
    • Characteristics
    • The process of manufacturing sake
    • Digital transformation and mechanization in the sake-brewing process
    • Introduction of custom-made system
  • Discussion
    • The impact of mass customization on sake breweries
    • Theoretical review on the transition of manufacturing processes
    • Design of open platform and future perspectives for food industry
  • Conclusion

In the next section, we summarize the theoretical background of process innovation, which has changed from mass production to mass customization, along with the transition of the traditional Japanese food industry. Firms produce a standardized product, but this product is customizable in the hands of the end user. A case of new customization and mass customization in the ash industry: Sekiya Brewery Co., Ltd.

As described in the next section, this technological advancement has had a substantial impact on the business. According to Sekiya's case study, the key factor in the custom system's success over those of other sake production companies is the ongoing challenge of digitizing and transferring professional techniques and skills. Sake Bar Marutani”, in the center of Nagoya, Japan's third largest economy.

As mentioned above, Pine II [17] described the emergence of mass customization in the 1980s as a new frontier in business competition. In this chapter we see a small sign of the new paradigm, personalization, emerging in the traditional food industry. However, there are some substantial barriers to the growth of this new paradigm.

Under such circumstances, managers have to make a decision to survive in the shrinking economy. In fact, we can find out from the case study that smart manufacturing and digitization have great potential to create a synergy effect for producers in the traditional food industry.

Figure 1 shows the amount of sake production in Japan. Production peaked in 1975 and has  gradually decreased
Figure 1 shows the amount of sake production in Japan. Production peaked in 1975 and has gradually decreased

Hình ảnh

Figure 1. Industrial revolutions.
Figure 2. Literature review methodological approach.
Figure 4. Documents by country.
Figure 3. Documents by year.
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