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12.2% 169000 185M TOP 1% 154 6200

Nguyễn Gia Hào

Academic year: 2023

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In the establishment phase, family businesses are more risk averse and focus on long-term retention of ownership [15]. Instead of the significant contribution of family businesses to economic growth and job creation, the.

TOP 1%


The contribution of the informal sector is predominant in the national output of these economies. Similarly, in Senegal, the informal sector contributes 51.5% to national output and employs 48.8% of the active population.

Literature review

The data used comes from IRDC as part of the project on business performance determinants in ASF. The second division shows with supporting examples that this coexistence of the two formal and informal sectors is a source of innovation [32].


  • Data and variable measures
  • Methods

Regarding the nature of the variables to be explained (binary and categorical), we use two different estimation techniques. Zi is the vector of control variables that group characteristics of the firm and the manager.

Results and discussions

  • Formal firms have a better propensity to innovate
  • The frequency of innovation is positively linked to the formality of the firms The results in Table 11 validate the idea that the frequency of innovation increases
  • Discussion

The results in Table 11 confirm the idea that the frequency of innovation increases with firm formality. However, we note that the relationship between formality and innovation frequency is more decisive in the case of Senegalese companies.

Conclusion and recommendations

Ltic Logarithm of the number of ICT devices in the age group of the firm's manager tranche_age. At this point, it is worth showing how the question of the impact of foreign investors on domestic firms has been presented by other researchers (Table 1).

New distribution network in the bank

Product support in the bank

The above activities of the strategic investor made an important qualitative contribution to the development of Bank Pekao, the banking system in Poland and thus also the Polish capital market. The above activities of the Uni Credit consortium improved the position of Bank Pekao in the banking market and made an important qualitative contribution to the development of the Polish capital market. The above facts meant that UniCredit brought important knowledge to Pekao Bank, supported its qualitative development and, thus, contributed to the development of the capital market in Poland.

New management methods in the bank

The guarantee of a positive qualitative impact on the part of UniCredit on the Polish capital market was also the fact that it is one of the leading banks in Italy. In this way, it made a qualitative contribution to the development of the capital market in Poland. The impact of the above factors on Bank Pekao's quality position was significant.

New programs in the company aimed at development of employees Regarding the social program, the consortium introduced a number of activi-

New programs in the company aimed at employee development Regarding the social program, the consortium presented a number of activities.

Consortium’s investment obligations

In this way, the strategic investor strengthened Pekao Bank's quality position and thus contributed to the quality development of the capital market in Poland. In this way, UniCredit has contributed to the qualitative development of the capital market in Poland. UniCredito Italiano thus contributed to the qualitative development of the capital market in Poland [27].


By sharing knowledge and experience in these areas, the strategic investor strengthened the quality position of the bank. This was reflected in the qualitative development of the bank and consequently of the capital market in Poland. Definitions of Foreign Direct Investment (FDI): A Methodological Note, BIS Meeting of the CGFS Working Group on FDI in the Financial Sector.

Introducing the concept of ecosystem

Innovation and entrepreneurial ecosystems are recent phenomena that have attracted the increasing attention of policy makers, business practitioners and academics. There is little research that has considered the interactions between innovation and entrepreneurial ecosystems. This chapter provides a critical overview and expands the understanding of the concepts of the innovation ecosystem and entrepreneurial ecosystem, their commonalities and differences.

Entrepreneurial ecosystem

Some of the most influential studies that have promoted the popularity of the entrepreneurial ecosystem concept are publications by D. The ecological aspect of the entrepreneurial ecosystem is related to "economic gardening," an entrepreneurial approach to local economic development [13]. The dynamic and systemic nature of the entrepreneurial ecosystem involves various actors, institutions and processes.

Innovation ecosystem

All actors in an innovation ecosystem contribute to the co-creation of the value of an entire ecosystem, which would hardly be possible to produce by a single firm. The innovation ecosystem consists of actors, relationships, resources and interacting conditions that enable or hinder innovation (Figure 2). The main actors in the innovation ecosystem are: entrepreneurs, government, academia (both educational and R&D institutions), industry (various associations), supporting institutions (institutions providing specialized, professional assistance), financial system (e.g. .financial institutions, investors, business angels, venture capitalists) and civil society (non-governmental organizations, media, etc.) [41].

Similarities and differences between innovation ecosystem and entrepreneurial ecosystem

Another difference between an innovation ecosystem and an entrepreneurial ecosystem relates to the different emphases: it is about innovation and, accordingly, about entrepreneurs. While innovation contributes to the creation of new value resulting from the entrepreneurial ecosystem [21]. The result of participation in the innovation ecosystem can be in the form of various innovations, innovative technologies, products, services, supporting innovation processes.


Accordingly, present value can be produced in terms of percentage change in value divided by return on capital. Or possibly gives the definition of valuation as a function of required return on capital. The temporal definitions appearing in Eq. 1) and (2) provide a highly simplified description of valuation and return on capital.

Application to stands of multiannual plants

In addition, quantities used in Eq. 1) and (2) are not necessarily completely known, but may contain probable scatter. It is found that while the capital rate of return and the capitalization are simply reversible in the absence of any variation (Eq. 1) and (2)), the same is not the case in the presence of variation, either deterministic or probabilistic (Eq. Since the relatively simple equations 7) and (8) are useful in designing forestry practices, firm valuation typically occurs at a specific point in time, and the probability density (a) is generally non-uniform.

Determination of stand capitalization

Again, the rate of return on capital in the denominator of the equation. 6) refers to a reference rate rather than a directly observed rate. Here we give some examples of determining the value of forests by interpolation. Again, the discount rate j will adjust for initial convergenceð Þ ¼K initialð Þ. 11) and (12) are investigated in Figure 1, in the case of a spruce stand established with 1800 saplings/ha, and a forested stand observed at 35 years of age.

Determination of a reference capital return rate

An explanation for the latter is that regeneration costs are included in the balance sheet until the end of the rotation. As a result, capitalization in adulthood is greater than the sum of discounted terminal income and bare land value. Without such an adjustment, the increase in value would be negligible over a period of two decades.

Determination of stand value increment rate

With the initial condition based on the early application of a growth model to seedling stands (Figure 3a), the initial rate of value increase is small, which later increases rapidly. Rate of increase in value based on discounting income with the constant discount rate (Eq. 12)) is smoother, even if it is not monotonic. Annual relative value increase rate, as shown in Eq. a) (above) shows a spruce stand established with 1800 saplings/hectare.

Figure 3 shows the annual value increment rate per hectare, determined using three different methods
Figure 3 shows the annual value increment rate per hectare, determined using three different methods

Further valuation attempts

On the contrary, capitalization determined by discounting income gives rates of increase in immovable value, except for increases after dilution. The last effect is more pronounced in the case of the example of the attitude observed in the forested state (Figure 4b).


Such a deduction seems necessary if the value of plants is determined through high-resolution observation or calculation. Such a limited treatment has some definite benefits: The internal consistency of the results can be verified relatively easily. Determining the optimal cutting policy for the forest plot by means of dynamic programming.

Modeling mathematical

  • Constraints
  • Parameters

To solve this kind of problem, we can implement the "No Transshipment" policy, that is, when the retailer falls into an out-of-stock position, he requests the missing central deposit amount to satisfy the customer's demand, or , by applying. When this request causes a stockout during the check period at Retailer1, then a transfer will be made from Retailer 2 to 1, the amount of the transfer will be marked by X21. DiT: Demand during periodicity T at retailer i (random variable) follows the normal law (μi, σi). These requirements are independent and identically distributed (i. i. d);.

Modeling and experimentation

  • Case “without-transshipment”
  • Case “with-transshipment”

For the first transfer policy called "Complete-Pooling" the modeling from the ARENA 16.0 software can be presented in Figure 4. For the second transfer policy called "Parial-Pooling" the modeling from the ARENA 16.0 software can be presented in Figure 5. For the second transshipment policy ("Parial-Pooling"), the objective function will be defined in the form of Eq.

Simulation results

  • Impact of input parameters on average global profit
  • Impact of the input parameters on the average global deservice rate (the “T”

Determination of the values ​​of the relative improvement percentage of the average global profit for a unit cost of transshipment = 3. Determination of the percentage improvement in average global profit for "full aggregation" between C = 3 $ and C = 0.5$. k Percentage of Profit Global Moyen. But we analyze the effect of overload policies on minimizing the Average Global Desservice rate.

Conclusions and perspectives

Today, intense global competition in the textile and apparel industry has made firms worldwide to be more innovative and competitive by investing heavily in New Product Development Strategies and Methods. In this context, the present study attempts to (i) understand new product development approaches and strategies adopted by leading global and domestic brands operating in the Indian market and (ii) draw lessons for developing future product development models. new products in the Indian Textile and Apparel Industry. The brands have been selected based on their popularity and positioning in the Indian textile markets.

Concept of product innovation

  • Objectives and hypothesis of the study
  • Methodology of the study

Furthermore, according to [14], every new product development undergoes eight stages before it is finally brought to market. Studies have shown that they represent a substantial part of the total new product launches in the market. According to [1, 16], this category constitutes one of the largest parts of the general categories of new product development in the market.

New product development in the textile and apparel industry in India The Readymade Garment Sector of India is largely comprised of three main types

  • Formal clothing
  • Casual/sportswear/active-wear
  • Traditional/ethnic wear
  • All categories apparel brands

In 2004, the brand launched its new product lines in the form of uniform, children's clothing and a women's brand called "Siya". New products in the world: The brand is credited with launching several innovations in the market as 'the best white shirt in 2015'. Aditya Birla clothing brand 'Allen Solly' is one of the exclusive brands that entered the Indian market in 1993.


  • Key policy perspectives for the future

Hình ảnh

Figure 3 shows the annual value increment rate per hectare, determined using three different methods
Table 1 shows the different measures of initial stock level of replication and for n = 2, with N: number of retailers.

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