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12.2% 169000 185M TOP 1% 154 6200

Nguyễn Gia Hào

Academic year: 2023

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This book chapter focuses on process management as one of the key requirements of ISO 9001. The means of the process approach are (Ch systematic definition of processes, and their interactions; (2) understanding and management of interrelated processes as a system and (3) .

Figure 1. Schematic representation of the elements of a single business process.
Figure 1. Schematic representation of the elements of a single business process.

Integration of QMS and IT for better process management in ISO 9001 QMS 1. Integration need

ERP systems generally cover the requirements of ISO 9001 [45] or offer QMS as a part (module) of an ERP. Integrating the classic QMS process approach with a company's IT support can result in benefits.

Practiced process approach in the ISO 9001 certified organizations: a case study in South-East Europe

Research methodology

The companies often fail to point out the connection between IT and QMS when presenting the IT support development in the company, even though they are certified according to ISO 9001 [52] or any other management system standard [53]. The same column of figures shows a total number of deviations and recommendations on this criterion, given during the audit to the group of organizations that were assessed with this figure.

Research results

Thus, the level of maturity of the selected sample of organizations is presented (table 2) and a comparison is made with the global BPM survey (table 3). Regarding the global survey, the majority of organizations (52%) received a score of 2 (= some organized processes indicate very low maturity) (see Figure 3); in this case study, organizations performed at least one grade better.

Table 1. Structure of the analyzed audited organizations.
Table 1. Structure of the analyzed audited organizations.

Discussion, research implications and limitations

  • Discussion
  • Implications for practitioners
  • Implications for researchers
  • Limitation of the research

Sustainable IT support (C5) was the only criterion that could be performed at a lower maturity level in our analyzed organizations than usual (according to data from the global report). From this case study, little room for improvement in IT support for ISO 9001 certified organizations is recognized.

Conclusion and further work

Furthermore, the literature review showed little research on integration of the company QMS and IT system. However, no holistic analysis of the possible integration of the ISO 9001 BPM with the company's IT system was found.


In addition, BPM performance and ease of use depends to some extent on proper functionality and IT support capabilities;. This case study shows that IT support in certification body ARs is not given much attention, neither in the text of the reports nor in the included recommendations to organizations.

Author details

Draft standard ISO/DIS 9004:2017 Quality management – ​​Quality of an organization – Guidance to achieve sustained success. Business Process Management Conference, Ljubljana: Uiverza v Ljubljan, Ekonomska falulteta/University of Ljubljana, Faculty of Economics; 2006, p.

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Quality Management in Spice Paprika Production

From Cultivation to End Product


  • Spice paprika as a Hungaricum
  • Food safety aspects
  • Aims and objectives

Implementation of appropriate quality control measures in each of the above steps, in conjunction with effective interaction between manufacturers' quality management practices and government activities, are considered key factors in ensuring the environmental and food safety of paprika production. To illustrate the need and difficulties in ensuring environmental and food safety in the production of spice peppers, the quality assurance measures established alongside the technologies are reviewed with identified major critical control points (CCPs) [7].

Points of vulnerability

In order to minimize the effects affecting quality, manufacturers are obliged to operate quality management/assurance and food safety systems, for example, Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points (HACCP), whose documentation contains all the steps of technology, critical points, where there may be a risk to human health, self-control points, as well as solutions to possible problems. A model for a HACCP system for the prevention and control of mycotoxins during dry chili production was implemented [8], in which the most important critical control points (eg drying and grading) were identified.

Quality aspects of cultivation technologies, cultivated paprika varieties

In the analysis of the production line of spicy paprika or chili products, typical contaminants and technological errors must be taken into account, and accordingly the optimal positions of the CCPs in the production line must be identified. Based on research done, it is worth mentioning at this point that in any given 10-year period, 2 or 3 years can limit the vegetation period due to the likely latest frost at the end of April and the unpredictable cold point between the end of September and the first week of October. Considering the adverse impact of climate change in the Carpathian Basin and the increasing demand for both quantity and quality of the harvest, the cultivation technology requires continuous development and the breeding of high genetic potential, virus-resistant varieties or hybrids.

However, it is worth noting at this point that this intensive technology carries a number of risk factors such as extreme weather conditions and insect (eg aphid) transmission of viruses (eg CMV, Potato Y). In the case of continuous selective harvesting, the average yield is up to 40 t/ha, which approaches the genetic potential of the hybrid varieties.

Pest control (biological, integrated)

  • Intensive cultivation
  • Co-formulants and adjuvants used in pesticide formulations
  • Integrated pest management

A small plot experiment was carried out with intensively grown paprika, where the plants were treated 1-3 times with pesticide premixes in different dosages (three levels). The harvested and processed paprika was sampled and analyzed for pesticide residue content and bioactive component amount. The damage from thrips and TSWV in nurseries and under plastic tunnels threatens the economy of the entire production. After planting, at the end of May and the first decade of June, larvae of the turnip moth (Agrotic segetum) damage the seedlings by cutting them.

Protection is also based on light traps and sex pheromone, but the number of possible treatments is limited by the harvest schedule. Due to the control of climatic conditions through ventilation and protection from insects, plant protection can be solved by preventive traps of insects, predators or parasitoids.

Effect of storage and post-ripening on product quality

Biological control is used with the parasitoid wasp Encarsia formosa and is supported by climate control.

Technology steps

This is due to the fact that the microbial load of paprika berries is not homogeneous; a few heavily spoiled ones mixed with the healthy berries can contaminate the whole product (Figure 2C).

Effects of the decontamination steps on the quality of spice paprika

  • Irradiation treatment
  • Steam treatment
  • Microwave and enhanced microwave heating
  • Other treatments

While the microbial status improved with irradiation, the concentration of the bioactive components, such as carotenoids, tocopherols, vitamin C and ASTA decreased (p < 0.05). In contrast, alternative methods, for example enhanced microwave treatment and radiofrequency heat treatment, were less effective in reducing the microbial counts and affected the color of the samples, but the bioactive chemical composition parameters were not significantly affected. Although the levels of carotenoids, tocopherols, vitamin C or other bioactive compounds and ASTA levels decreased, altering composition rates of the aroma volatiles, irradiation was considered to have excellent efficacy [25-26].

The concentration of the main bioactive substances, such as capsanthin esters, total carotenoids, tocopherols, vitamin C and the ASTA value did not change significantly, however the total tocopherol content decreased by 6%. To avoid the detrimental effect of the treatment method on the color of paprika powder, an appropriate microwave treatment (including re-wetting of the sample, intensive mixing throughout the treatment and post-drying to the initial moisture level) was also evaluated by the authors.

The effect of the geographical origin

For the control of aflatoxin B1 and total aflatoxins in paprika powder, the NIRS technique was applied as an alternative method using the Modified Partial Least Squares (MPLS) algorithm as the regression method [46]. To identify major differences in characteristics and composition of herbal paprika chemical components based on their origin, a set of samples (53 pieces) was examined [48]. According to the results of the NIR evaluation of paprika powder samples, some clustering has occurred between the samples according to the country of origin.

They successfully tried to define the geographical origin of paprika by its predominant microflora [49]. Although no significant differences were found between the microbial loads of spice pepper samples from different countries (Brazil, Bulgaria, China, Hungary, India, Kenya, Peru, Serbia, Spain, Thailand and unknown origin) on the EU market, the bacterial species in It was found dominant microflora characteristic of the climate.

Internal and external quality control measures

Gas chromatography-olfactometry was also applied to the evaluation and identification of odor-active compounds combined with flavor dilution (FD) factors [45]. Samples from Spain and Peru showed extremely high total carotenoid content (average 3709 and 3810 μg/g, respectively), and the ratio of capsanthin diesters to free capsanthin was found to be a good indicator of origin, presumably due to different climatic conditions in the two countries.


Quality management in paprika production as a synergy of internal and external quality measures. The effect of different decontamination methods on the microbial load, bioactive components, aroma and color of allspice. Quality management in paprika production: From cultivation to final product http://dx.doi.org/10.5772/intechopen.71227 131.

The polyphenols and carbohydrates as indicators of botanical and geographical origin of Serbian autochthonous clones of red spice paprika. Quality Management in Spice Pepper Production: From Cultivation to End Product http://dx.doi.org/10.5772/intechopen.71227 133.

Adaptive CUSUM for Steady State Normal Data

  • Literature review
  • CUSUM and adaptive CUSUM plans
  • Near optimal steady-state plans when the shift is known
  • Improving adaptive CUSUM performance for the steady-state situation
  • Example of application
  • Conclusions and further work
  • Appendix

However, the contribution of this article deals with improving the runaway performance of the adaptive CUSUM plan in the stable situation and provides formulas to estimate the thresholds for the high-sided conventional CUSUM in stable situations. The smallest runaway ARLs for different scenarios are shown in Table 1 for in-control ARL = 200, and for in-control ARL = 800 in Table 2. For this reason, we expect less relative gain from optimizing the adaptive CUSUM for the stable state situation with greater ARL under control.

Attempts to improve the adaptive Sparks plan [12] in stationary situations Let us recall the adaptive CUSUM. The traditional adaptive CUSUM from Sparks [12] failed to signal a second time (Figure 2b). a) Adaptive CUSMNCUtð Þk advocated in this paper for ARL in control = 200.

Table 1. Optimal offset values ( k ) for detecting certain size shifts when the in-control ARL = 200.
Table 1. Optimal offset values ( k ) for detecting certain size shifts when the in-control ARL = 200.

Control Charts to Enhance Quality

Results and analysis

Shift to the process level: An example of a control chart showing a shift in the process level model is given in Figure 25. LCL approach: An example of a control chart showing an approach to the LCL model is given in Figure 28 UCL or LCL Approach: An example of a control chart showing an approach to the UCL or LCL model is given in Figure 29.

Points accumulating around a value: An example of a control chart showing points accumulating around a value is given in Figure 32. Example of a control chart showing many points very close to the control limits.

Figure 14. Individual measurements control chart for the number of rolls daily of Sar ı k ı l ı ç.
Figure 14. Individual measurements control chart for the number of rolls daily of Sar ı k ı l ı ç.


They derived some properties of the economics-based model, which facilitates economic optimization, and CUSUM adaptive control charts can also be developed [ 24 ]. This work presented recent developments in the design of adaptive control charts, especially in univariate control charts because they allow some of their parameters to vary during production. Performance measures of adaptive control charts derived from the Markov chain approach are discussed in this paper.

In this paper, adaptive control charts for attributes are also studied and it is shown that by adding an adaptive function, the detection capability of the charts increases [28]. Sensitivity, sample size, and sampling frequency (specific and equal time intervals) are important factors affecting control chart performance.

Figure 40. Mean BMI increase in females by age.
Figure 40. Mean BMI increase in females by age.

Hình ảnh

Table 2.  BPM maturity levels and evidenced BPM shortcomings in the ISO 9001 audited organizations.
Table 3. BPM maturity level of ISO 9001 audited organizations compared with results of global BMP research.
Figure 3. Practiced BPM elements of ISO 9001 audited organizations compared with results of global BMP research.
Figure 4. ISO 9001 audited organizations at BPM maturity level 3–5 compared with results of global BMP research.

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