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Responsibility for overseeing food safety worldwide is shared by several different agencies and ministries within the same country. Most food safety studies should focus on the microbiological criteria currently used in various food products, as issues related to food safety criteria are common to all sectors of the food chain. Surveillance of foodborne diseases and monitoring of microbial food contaminants should be carried out, both from a public health perspective and through control measures for the effectiveness of food safety measures.

Figure 1. Food safety and dialogue between relevant groups.
Figure 1. Food safety and dialogue between relevant groups.

Hazard to human health

This serves to illustrate that a decision on the safety of a food product should also take into account that information communicated to the consumer – including label information and cooking recommendations – contributes to safety. If finished goods, such as kitchen utensils, are passed on to the consumer, there is only limited necessity due to the general household cleaning before use. However, this was not due to the metal residues themselves, but rather to the fact that the pills contained lead.

Microbiological hazards

Another example comes from game: metal residues from pellets have led to a (partially complete) ban on wild rabbit meat. The research project 'Food security of killed game' can be accessed publicly on the BMEL website. Since 2004, there has been another paradigm shift in the distribution of food products of animal origin.

Levels of responsibilities and competences

This was in the interests of the associations' member companies and served as a basis for protecting consumer health. In the following discussion of food security, additional practical examples serve to illustrate the influence of crisis management and food security. In addition, in the course of their business activities, manufacturers should take all appropriate measures to recognize potential hazards appropriate to the characteristics of the products they supply and to take precautions against potential consumer hazards.

Crisis management

The parties involved must ensure that the condition and labeling of the product complies with all legal requirements along the entire chain. The requirements that apply at different procedural levels are provided by the government, and non-governmental organizations have a significant influence on the formation of public opinion in times of crisis. This demonstrates that 'risk reduction' is a very diverse topic, some practical examples are explored below.

Residues and dioxins

This gave rise to another scandal, in the area of ​​organic production, with extensive recall actions as a result. There was no health hazard, but rather a component in the feed which is not allowed in organic production. The most recent incident occurred in the Netherlands in 2017, where the banned insecticide (against mites) Fipronil was used.

Preventative measures

Meanwhile, the regional German authorities have considered this fact that consumers were misled by the EU regulation on organic farming [17], as it stipulates that only uncontaminated organic feed may be used. Again, contaminated eggs reached the market - almost exclusively eggs produced in the Netherlands - resulting in a recall for eggs with NL (Netherlands) identification.

Summary

5] Quote from the Food Law Risk Assessment Manual [6] KAT Egg Production Requirements, website: http://KAT.ec [7] Standards QS GmbH, website: https://www.q-s .de. 12] Main website of the research project: http://www.bfr.bund.de/de/forschungsprojekt_lebensmit- telsicherheit_von_jagdlich_gewonnem_wildbret-129597.html. 15] EPEGA Venison Guidelines, website http://www.epega.org, internal members area [16] Egg identification, website http://www.was-steht-auf-dem-Ei .de.

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Food Safety Legislation in Some Developing Countries

  • Introduction
  • Why food safety legislation must work in the developing economies?
    • Key food safety regulations at the world stage with an impact on developing economies’ food safety
    • Models of national food safety and quality control systems
  • Components of a good national food safety system and the status of each in the developing countries
    • National food safety policy
    • Food legislation
    • National food standards development platform
    • Science-based risk assessment (RA)
    • Inspection
    • Laboratory testing services
    • Capacity
    • Training and education in food safety
    • Epidemiological surveillance
    • Codex Alimentarius Commission (CAC) membership
  • Gaps and the hindrances to full implementation of food safety legislations in developing countries
    • The two faces of developing countries’ food safety management systems
  • Case studies: status of food safety legislation in West Africa
    • Food safety legislation in Ghana
    • Food safety legislations in Nigeria
    • Status of food safety legislation in East African Community (EAC)
    • The food safety situation in Asia contrasted to Africa
  • The role of GHI and other professional societies in implementing food safety legislation in the developing economies
    • Development of working groups on nomenclature of food safety
    • Training and education
    • GHI wants regulations to be based on good science
    • Global incident alert network
    • FAO, CAC and other international organizations
    • Innovations that could lead to a faster and better legislation of food safety in the developing world
    • Next dimension to making food safety work in developing economies
  • Conclusions

Countries in Africa and the rest of the developing world have some form of food safety legislation. For food safety legislation to succeed, it must cover all parts of the food supply chain. Food quality inspections demonstrate or confirm the success or failure of food safety legislation.

Gaps and obstacles to the full implementation of food safety legislation in developing countries Legislation in developing countries. Food security in Nigeria is undermined by insufficient application of Good Agricultural Practices (GAP), misuse of agrochemicals, use of pesticides for fishing, misuse of pesticides on stored grains, chemical contaminants such as lead poisoning and misuse of additives (butylated hydroxylanisole, nitrates/nitrite) . The adoption of food safety policies in Nigeria set the country on a path towards well-coordinated food safety legislation.

The food safety and quality management system in Nepal falls under the Ministry of Agriculture and Cooperatives. Innovations that can lead to faster and better legislation in the field of food safety in developing countries. It has also presented case studies of food security situations in some developing countries: Asia (India and Nepal), West Africa (Ghana and Nigeria) and East Africa.

Acknowledgements

Developing countries should be encouraged to consider setting up regional analysis centers, domestic laboratories, shared regional analysis capability and even regional training. Safety awareness as a culture along the entire value chain is key. Food biosecurity or defense is becoming increasingly important, but most developing countries have yet to begin to put in place policy mechanisms or laws that govern their food value chains and protect them from new threats. such as bioinsecurity or even bioterrorism. It also goes to developing countries' capacity to respond to biosafety issues and associated legislation.

It is high time that developing countries begin to deal with the concepts of GMOs based on evidence and perhaps exploit this area that can lead to sufficient food, thereby eliminating the need to allow unsafe food to enter the value chains due to food shortage [11]. Although the countries have different opinions on GMOs, the insufficient capacity to test for transgenic drugs in developing economies makes it doubly critical that some form of harmonized response based on evaluated and impartial evidence is achieved to facilitate cross-border movement of GMOs. This chapter has focused on the unique challenges for food safety legislation in some developing economies and the innovative ways in which the stakeholders must approach the subject and make it more effective.

Finally, it proposes important innovations that can be applied to make food safety legislation work more effectively in emerging economies.

Conflict of interest

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Quorum Sensing Inhibition and Anti-Biofilm Activity of Traditional Chinese Medicines

Quorum Sensing Inhibition and Anti-Biofilm Activity of Traditional Chinese Medicines

  • Different QS on gram positive and gram negative bacterium
  • QSI on gram positive bacteria
  • QSI on gram negative bacteria
  • Active constituent of traditional Chinese medicines
  • Conclusion

Quorum Sensing Inhibition and Anti-Biofilm Activity of Traditional Chinese Medicine http://dx.doi.org/10.5772/intechopen.74658 39. Quorum Sensing Inhibition and Anti-Biofilm Activity of Traditional Chinese Medicine http://dx.doi.org /10.5772/intechopen.74658 41. A quorum sensing quenching effect has been shown to exist in traditional Chinese medicinal plants, foreseeing the huge prospect of QSI application to traditional Chinese medicine [44].

Quorum Sensing Inhibition and Anti-Biofilm Activity of Traditional Chinese Medicine http://dx.doi.org/10.5772/intechopen.74658 43. Quorum Sensing Inhibition and Anti-Biofilm Activity of Traditional Chinese Medicine http://dx.doi.org /10.5772/intechopen.74658 45. The role of the luxS quorum-sensing system in biofilm formation and virulence of Staphylococcus epidermidis.

Impact of the agr quorum sensing system on adherence to polystyrene in Staphylococcus aureus. Quorum Sensing Inhibition and Anti-Biofilm Activity of Traditional Chinese Medicines http://dx.doi.org/10.5772/intechopen.74658 47. Inhibition of biofilm development of uropathogens by curcumin – An anti-quorum sensing agent from Curcuma longa.

An insight into the anti-biofilm and anti-quorum sensing activities of selected anthocyanidins: Case study of Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1. Kusnadi: Inhibition of quorum sensing in Chromobacterium violaceum cv026 by violacein produced by Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Quorum Sensing Inhibition and Anti-Biofilm Activity of Traditional Chinese Medicines http://dx.doi.org/10.5772/intechopen.74658 49.

Figure 1. A graphic diagram of QS molecular signaling network.
Figure 1. A graphic diagram of QS molecular signaling network.

Foodborne Bacteria: Potential Bioterrorism Agents

Classification of foodborne bacteria as potential bioterrorist weapons

Category A: These are high-priority agents that pose a risk to national security due to their easy spread, high mortality rate, and high impact on public health. Category C: These include the third highest priority agents, which are emerging pathogens that can be easily engineered. Bacillus anthracis is the bacterium most likely to be used as a bioterrorist agent because its spores are widely distributed in nature and it grows easily under nonspecific conditions in the laboratory.

Anthrax spores can be released anywhere as aerosols, but can also be put into food and drink. Historically, no intentional cases of foodborne transmission of anthrax are cited, and since the purpose of this chapter is to summarize food poisoning agents as potential biological weapons, Bacillus anthracis should not be considered further in the text.

Foodborne bacteria that can be used as potential bioterrorist agents

  • Enterobacteria
  • Pathogenic Vibrio species

The generation time is very short and infection with a bacterial cell can result in the death of the host. The correct diagnosis is based on the patient's symptoms and epidemiological history. Unlike the bubonic form of the disease, it can be transmitted from person to person through airborne droplets [17].

Shigellae attach to, invade and replicate in the mucosal epithelium of the distal ileum and colon, causing inflammation and ulceration [28]. In addition, staphylococcal enterotoxins do not affect the smell and taste of the food. Staphylococcal toxins act extremely quickly - the incubation period is from 20 to 30 minutes to 6-8 hours after consumption of contaminated food.

The most important is the α-toxin (lecithinase), which destroys the cell membranes, including those of the erythrocytes, and leads to hemolysis. Penicillin G is the antibiotic of choice, but more important is the surgical treatment of the wound. The incubation period of the foodborne infection is 8-16 hours and the disease is characterized by watery diarrhea, cramps and vomiting.

However, one can speculate that to have a significant impact on society, the aerosol form of the toxin must be used [43].

Conclusion

Since cholera is a typical water and foodborne infection, its prophylaxis is associated with strict personal hygiene and sanitation measures. Bottled, boiled or treated water should be used for drinking and food preparation in endemic areas or during outbreaks. Because Vibrio cholerae is a waterborne bacteria, the most likely use for bioterrorism will be via contaminated water and/or food.

Molecular pathogenesis of Shigella spp.: Control of signaling, invasion and host cell death by type III secretion. Coli O157:H7 infections associated with consumption of commercial prepackaged ready-to-bake cookie dough - United States, 2009.

Hình ảnh

Figure 1. Food safety and dialogue between relevant groups.
Figure 2. Transparency, sustainability and responsibility along the process chain.
Figure 3. The process chain: Levels and participants.
Figure 1. A graphic diagram of QS molecular signaling network.
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