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Magnetic Materials and Magnetic Levitation

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Nguyễn Gia Hào

Academic year: 2023

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Inquiries about the use of the book should be directed to INTECHOPEN LIMITED rights and permissions department (permissions@intechopen.com). The chapters and different topics of the book will provide a key understanding of different magnetic materials.

Introduction

Thermal heating in an oxygen atmosphere at high temperatures contributes to the oxidation process and the formation of oxide forms, which significantly affects the physical, chemical and magnetic properties of compounds [17–21]. Although Bi2Fe4O9 has obvious importance as a functional material, there are few reports in the literature.

Experimental details

They suggested that FM Bi2Fe4O9 is a semiconductor with an indirect optical bandgap of 1.732 eV and that the exchange mechanism has started to operate, resulting in exchange splitting in Bi2Fe4O9, while antiferromagnetic (AFM) Bi2Fe4O9 is a multiband semiconductor without majority-minority spin state splitting [13]. Due to thermal annealing, the reduction of the Fe▬Ni phase is associated with the subsequent ordering of the Fe▬Ni▬O phase with a decrease in the crystal lattice parameter and an increase in the degree of crystallinity [19].

Results and discussion 1 Crystal structure analysis

  • SEM analysis
  • Raman scattering analysis
  • Dielectric and P-E loop studies
  • Magnetic analysis (M-H curve)

The BET active surface area of ​​Bi2Fe4O9 is 1.2 m2/g, which is in good agreement with the values ​​reported in the literature [27]. In the future, we can improve the magnetic and electrical properties of Bi2Fe4O9 ceramics by appropriate doping or preparation techniques.

Conclusions

Investigation of the structural, magnetic and dielectric properties of Mn-doped Bi2Fe4O9 produced by reverse chemical coprecipitation. The two core problems of the electric field control of nanomagnets and nanomagnetic logic gate are well solved.

Voltage pulse-induced magnetization switching

Model

The multiferroic nanomagnet device is one of the most competitive spintronic devices due to its low energy consumption and high thermal stability [1]. For a nanomagnet whose tilt angle is β, as shown in Figure 2, the short axis and long axis of the nanomagnet rotate clockwise from the x-axis and y-axis to the x-axis and y-axis, respectively, and the z-axis (not shown) is still in the vertical direction.

Results and discussions

This start-up time significantly increases the first switching time of the nanomagnet. Figure 5(b) shows the optimal voltage pulse waveform for the nanomagnet switch. Therefore, the minimum switching period of the nanomagnet is the sum of the minimum voltage pulse width.

Figure 6 shows the dynamic magnetization of the switchings and optimal volt- volt-age pulse waveform when β = 5°
Figure 6 shows the dynamic magnetization of the switchings and optimal volt- volt-age pulse waveform when β = 5°

Conclusion

Unfortunately, the nanomagnet manages to be switched to logic "0" but never returns to logic "1" again. The effects of the rising and falling edges of the actual voltage pulse are not taken into account.

Electric control of nanomagnetic logic gate

Design and analysis

As shown in Figure 8(a), the long axis and short axis of the nanomagnet rotate from the axis and y axis to the x axis and y axis, respectively. The initial magnetization of the Out magnet points to the left in (a) and to the right in (b). β= 5°) of the nanomagnets are tuned to eliminate C-shaped clock errors and eddy currents.

Results and discussions

The results confirm that magnets A and B will remain stable during magnet Out switching. The magnetization trace of the Out magnet presents two apparent energy states, as can be seen in Fig. 10(f).

Figure 11 shows the simulation of our design of OR logic gate calculated by OOMMF using the data in Table 1
Figure 11 shows the simulation of our design of OR logic gate calculated by OOMMF using the data in Table 1

Conclusion

First, in a heavy metal/MI heterostructure, the charge current flows only in the HM layer but not in the MI layer. Furthermore, the interfacing of a topological insulator (TI) with a conducting FM can result in a significant modification or even complete suppression of the topological surface states (TSS) in the TI layer.

Properties of barium ferrite thin films

  • Atomic structure of BaM thin films
  • Growth techniques
  • BaM thin film grown on (0001) c-plane Al 2 O 3 substrate
  • BaM thin film grown on (1 1 � 2 0) a-plane Al 2 O 3 substrate

Song and his colleagues succeeded in PLD growth of BaM thin films that exhibited an FMR linewidth as narrow as single crystal BaM bulks. One of the loops was measured with the magnetic field applied along the c-axis, while the other was measured with the field also in the film plane but perpendicular to the c-axis.

Figure 2b shows that c-axis out-of-plane BaM grains can be grown on (0001) Al 2 O 3
Figure 2b shows that c-axis out-of-plane BaM grains can be grown on (0001) Al 2 O 3

Spintronic applications with magnetic insulators

Introduction to spintronics

The spectrum consists of a strong peak from the sapphire substrate and the two other peaks for the m-planes of the BaM film, indicating the in-plane orientation of the c-axis. These data show that the film has a well-defined in-plane uniaxial anisotropy with the easy axis along the c axis.

Generation of pure spin currents through SSE using NM/BaM structures and photo-spin-voltaic effect in Pt/BaM structure

The sign of the voltage reverses when the direction of the temperature gradient is reversed. The most important factor is the wavelength of the light used to excite the sample.

Figure 6d shows an important property of SSE, namely, the sign of the gener- gener-ated voltage flips when the direction of the BaM magnetization is flipped
Figure 6d shows an important property of SSE, namely, the sign of the gener- gener-ated voltage flips when the direction of the BaM magnetization is flipped

Spin-orbit torque-assisted switching in magnetic insulators

However, the RAHE behaves in a very similar way to the perpendicular magnetization component of the BaM film M⊥ (compare Figure 10b with Figure 10c). This confirms that the direction of SOT can be controlled by changing the sign of the supplied charging current.

Figure 8 shows PSVE in a Pt/MI structure. An important question arises due to the extremely similar setup of both LSSE and PSVE: how can we determine the source of the ISHE generated voltage? It could be due to LSSE, or PSVE, or both.
Figure 8 shows PSVE in a Pt/MI structure. An important question arises due to the extremely similar setup of both LSSE and PSVE: how can we determine the source of the ISHE generated voltage? It could be due to LSSE, or PSVE, or both.

Magnetization switching with topological insulators

While Figure 15c shows the response of the RAHE at room temperature settings, Figure 15d shows the RAHE when T = 3 K. The figure shows a hysteresis loop very close to that in Figure 15c. The widths of the hysteresis loop are very similar, indicating that the same field strength is required to saturate the magnetization of the BaM film when T = 3 K and when T = 300 K. The value of RAHE is slightly higher when T = 3 K than when T = 300 K, indicating that the saturation of the BaM film increases slightly as T decreases.

Figure 16a shows the SOT switching experiment configuration. An external field H was applied along the x direction to aid in the SOT switching of M ⊥ in the BaM film
Figure 16a shows the SOT switching experiment configuration. An external field H was applied along the x direction to aid in the SOT switching of M ⊥ in the BaM film

Summary and outlook

Application of the side-spring model to the Hall effect and the Nernst effect in ferromagnets. The dimensionless value, zT, is determined by TE properties (S: Seebeck coefficient,σ: electrical conductivity,κ: thermal conductivity) of the individual TE materials in the device.

Crystal structures and magnetic properties of full-Heusler compounds

However, recent theoretical and experimental studies have shown that metals, especially semimetallic full Heusler compounds, have relatively high Sa as well as high σ. Section 2 presents the crystal structures and magnetic properties of full Heusler. coefficient, σ: electrical conductivity, κ: thermal conductivity) of individual TE materials in the device.

Thermoelectric properties of half-metallic full-Heusler compounds In this section, we present some of the theoretical and experimental studies on

Figures 3(a) and (b) show the temperature dependence of the calculated Stot for ternary and quaternary half-metallic full-Heusler compounds, respectively. The modulation of the degree of order may be a key strategy to increase the S value of the half-metallic full-Heusler compounds;.

Future prospects of magnetic full-Heusler compounds as potential thermoelectric materials

Phase separation-induced changes in the magnetic and transport properties of the quaternary Heusler alloy Co2Mn1-xTixSn. Investigation of electronic structure, magnetic and transport properties of semimetallic Mn2CuSi and Mn2ZnSi Heusler alloys.

Half-metallic ferrimagnetic materials

The total density of spin-polarized states of a typical semimetallic ferrimagnetic material exhibits in the spin-channel a semiconductor band gap while in the spin-down channel a metallic behavior. Partial and total density of states (PDOS and TDOS) of the semimetallic Heusler ferrimagnetic compound, Zr2CrAl in the optimized lattice parameter.

Figure 3 (unpublished results) exhibits the position of the Fermi level and the  width of the energy gap in spin-up channel as function of the lattice parameter
Figure 3 (unpublished results) exhibits the position of the Fermi level and the width of the energy gap in spin-up channel as function of the lattice parameter

Spin gapless semiconductors

The width of the energy bandgap of the spin-up channel decreases, as illustrated in Fig. 6. However, the semiconducting bandgap of the spin-down channel decreases as the atomic radius of the main element increases (when Ga replaces Al).

Figure 5 presents the contribution of double and triple degenerated states (d eg
Figure 5 presents the contribution of double and triple degenerated states (d eg

Half-metallic ferromagnetic materials

It is obvious that changing the lattice parameter affects the presence of a zero gap from the spin channel and the width of the semiconductor gap. Calculated lattice parameters, partial, total magnetic moments and energy band gap in Zr2MnZ (Z = Al, Ga).

Table 3 overviews the state of the art ferromagnetic zirconium-based Heusler  compounds
Table 3 overviews the state of the art ferromagnetic zirconium-based Heusler compounds

Conclusion

  • DMS opens new window for spintronics
  • DMS made up as a computer memory
  • Ferromagnetic origin in DMS
  • DMS ZnO

Prediction of semimetallic properties of Heusler alloys Zr2VZ (Z = Si, Ge, Sn and Pb) based on density functional theory. Later, electrical manipulation of the coercive field (HC) is also possible for (In, Mn)As, which means that the applied electric field changes the magnetic anisotropy [9].

Experimental methods

Results and discussion

  • Wurtzite structure and defect calculation in DMS ZnO
  • Microstructural study of DMS ZnO .1 SEM image of Mn-doped ZnO nanowires
  • DMS ZnO with TM = Cr and Mn ions .1 RTFM in Zn 0.94 Cr 0.06 O nanorods
  • DMS ZnO with RE ions .1 RTFM in Sm/ZnO
  • DMS ZnO with Fe and La ions .1 RTFM in Fe/ZnO nanorods
  • DMS ZnO with Co, La, Gd, and Ce ions

However, the unoccupied Gd f minority states are localized in the vicinity of the Fermi level. The M-H results show that with increasing Dy doping concentration, the magnetic behavior changes from weak ferromagnetic/. The observed magnetic behavior is related to oxygen vacancies as determined by EXAFS and PL measurements.

Figure 3d 0 shows UV-visible absorption spectra measured at room temperature for Ni-, Cu-, and Ce-substituted ZnO nanoparticles
Figure 3d 0 shows UV-visible absorption spectra measured at room temperature for Ni-, Cu-, and Ce-substituted ZnO nanoparticles

Conclusion

Magnetic and electrical properties of Ni-doped ZnO. nanoparticles exhibit dilute magnetic semiconductor in nature. Evidence of oxygen vacancy enhancing room temperature ferromagnetism in co-doped ZnO. nanosheets@hollow microrod arrays for high-performance asymmetric.

Ferromagnetism in oxide-based DMS

Ferromagnetism in Mn-doped SnO 2

Here we present a brief overview of the Fe-, Ni- and Mn-doped SnO2 system experimental work. As reported by Tian et al., the chemical coprecipitation method was used to synthesize Mn doped SnO2 nanoparticles [46].

Ferromagnetism in Fe-doped SnO 2

The crystallographic structures of the prepared Fe-doped SnO2 were determined by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and magnetic measurements were performed with the superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID). As shown in Figure 7, oxygen vacancies have a great influence on the FM property of Fe-doped SnO2 [58].

Ferromagnetism in Ni doped SnO 2

Similarly, both undoped and Fe-doped SnO2 thin films show that the observed FM property is due to oxygen vacancies near Fe increased the magnetic moment, the RTFM behavior observed in the SnO2 film must be associated with the sample shape or with defects incorporated during film growth and, part of the magnetism observed in SnO2, as shown in figure [52]. Some study reported that the magnetic properties of Fe-doped SnO2 nanopowders show that the an increased Fe concentration leading to the reduction of oxygen-related vacancy changes magnetic property to paramagnetic.

Conclusion

History and theory of magnetic levitation

Magnetic levitation (MagLev) technique, which works on the principle of negative magnetophoresis, manipulates the diamagnetic particles in paramagnetic medium by providing antigravity conditions (Figure 1C) [10]. In magnetic levitation systems, biological entities (as diamagnetic particles) are also floated and manipulated in three-dimensional (3D) space, as are non-biological particles in the paramagnetic medium [11].

Magnetic levitation approaches in biosciences

Magnetic levitation technology for biosensors and diagnostics

Figure 3B, magnetic levitation technique was used to monitor chemical reactions by observing the changes of the levitation height of polymeric beads. To reduce that cost, magnetic levitation system has been combined with smartphone to analyze micro-sized particles and even cells.

Magnetic levitation technology for tissue engineering

The mirrors were placed at 45° angle to reflect light through microcapillary channel to provide visualization of micro-sized particles in magnetic levitation system. Later, a similar magnetic levitation system was used for the diagnosis of malaria-infected red blood cells and sickle cells by analyzing their density-dependent levitation heights [ 32 , 33 ].

Summary and conclusion

The same magnetic levitation system was also used for the formation of multicellular 3D cellular structures, called organoids. Tilted magnetic levitation enables the measurement of the full range of densities of materials with low magnetic permeability.

Physical features of electromagnetic levitation 1 Liquid metal floating in an electromagnetic field

  • Solid and liquid metal levitation
  • Temperature of the levitated melt
  • Setups for EML of melts
  • Inductor designs

Rising oscillations with an amplitude that exceeds the size of the inductor (ball in the air). In the third zone, the position of the metal in the inductor is associated with the presence of volume dependence.

EML in physical research

  • Physical properties and chemical reactions studied by EML
  • Measurement of surface tension and melt viscosity during levitation in zero gravity in parabolic flights and ISS
  • Atomization of liquid metals in levitation
  • Chemical equilibrium in the system metal-slag-gas during EML
  • Reaction of С + О → СО in the melts of Fе and Nb at EML .1 Melts of Fe-C-O at EML

Top and side views of the same Ø 10 mm liquid iron drop in the multi-coil inductor. To justify superplasticity, it is important to know the temperature-dependent viscosity of the alloy.

Hình ảnh

Figure 2 presents the voltage-controlled multiferroic heterostructure. The red arrow indicates the direction of magnetization
Figure 6 shows the dynamic magnetization of the switchings and optimal volt- volt-age pulse waveform when β = 5°
Figure 11 shows the simulation of our design of OR logic gate calculated by OOMMF using the data in Table 1
Figure 11 shows the simulation of our design of OR logic gate calculated by OOMMF using the data in Table 1
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These changes in XRD patterns indicate that the lattice parameters of the BNFO, BNFNO and BNFCO samples are altered by doping especially in co-doping samples.. The values