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Milk: Bioactive Components and Role in Human Nutrition

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Nguyễn Gia Hào

Academic year: 2023

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The role of proteins and some bioactive peptides in the nutritional quality of donkey milk and their impact on human health. Pijet2017,3, 34. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).

Material and Methods

Both children's attitudes towards food and children's assessment of satiety can be influenced by family [16,17]. For example, some works highlight the increase in children's intake of fruits, vegetables and milk after they observe adults or their peers consuming these foods [20-23].

Attention to Multiple Strategies Is Needed to Improve Eating Habits in Children: Examples and Update of Communication Strategies

In general, schools should consider working with chefs as well as using a particular choice plan to increase fruit and vegetable selection, as reported in another study by Cohen et al. 79] showed the effectiveness of this approach to increase fruit and vegetable intake in Italian children, while Blitstein et al.

Some Additional Specificities Related to Strategies to Increase School Aged Children’s Daily Milk Consumption

Ask for Chocolate Milk,” a strategy that resulted in an 18% increase in white milk selection compared to the choices made by control students. In addition, several programs have been launched to promote the distribution of milk in schools before morning break or lunch [103].

Conclusions

A self-determination theory-based intervention to promote healthy eating habits and physical activity in school-aged children. Cuade. Using a mixed-methods approach to measure the impact of a school-based nutrition and media education intervention study on fruit and vegetable intake of Italian children.Public Health Nutr.

Small Prizes Increased Plain Milk and Vegetable Selection by Elementary School Children without

  • Introduction
  • Materials and Methods
  • Results
  • Discussion

Finally, we piloted PPP in three elementary schools in the Norwood City School District (NCSD) which has a diverse and economically diverse student body. During the first week of the program, "smiley face" emoticons were placed on PP food and beverage items.

Table 1. Demographics of schools participating in intervention.
Table 1. Demographics of schools participating in intervention.

Reactions to a Low-Fat Milk Social Media Intervention in the US: The Choose 1%

Materials and Methods 1. Materials

The third sub-theme in this group is called Contamination. The 19 comments in this sub-theme refer to the belief that dairy products are contaminated. Development of a measure of the motives underlying food selection - The Food Choice Questionnaire. Appetite.

Table 1. Facebook Advertisements and Social Media Participation (2014).
Table 1. Facebook Advertisements and Social Media Participation (2014).

Research to Understand Milk Consumption

Behaviors in a Food-Insecure Low-Income SNAP Population in the US

Regardless, 2% of milk users indicated more willingness to consider switching to low-fat milk than whole milk users. Instead, lower consumption of low-fat milk was associated with a knowledge gap and misperceptions of the nutritional properties of different types of milk.

Table 1. Correct Answers to Milk Nutrition Knowledge Quiz (weighted).
Table 1. Correct Answers to Milk Nutrition Knowledge Quiz (weighted).

Bioactive Peptides in Milk: From Encrypted Sequences to Nutraceutical Aspects

  • Bioactive Components of Milk: Focus on BPs
  • Biochemical Properties
  • Bioavailability
  • Nutraceutical Aspects

Bioactive peptides derived from milk proteins and their potential health benefits: An update. Food function. Milk bioactive peptide database: a comprehensive database of bioactive peptides derived from milk proteins and a new visualization.Food Chem.2017. Scientific evidence for the role of bioactive peptides derived from milk proteins in humans: a review. J.

Bioactive peptides derived from bovine whey proteins: Opioid and ace inhibitory peptides. Trends Food Sci. Bioactive peptides derived from milk proteins in dairy products: Molecular, biological and methodological aspects. Acta Sci.

Role of Proteins and of Some Bioactive Peptides on the Nutritional Quality of Donkey Milk and Their

Donkey Milk and Its Hypoallergenic Properties

Donkey milk is also an important food in the geriatric field and in cases of calcium deficiency [21]. The fat content of donkey milk is very similar to that of mare's milk, but low compared to other types, including human milk. Consequently, the average energy value found in donkey milk is 1939.4 kJ/kg, which is similar to that of mare's milk, but lower than milk of other species [25].

In terms of lipid composition, donkey milk contains a lower amount of saturated fatty acids (SFA) and a higher level of essential fatty acids (EFA) than cow's milk and a high content of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) (especially α-linolenic acid). and linoleic acid). In addition, the ratio of casein to whey protein was higher in donkey milk than in human milk, but was closer to that of breast milk substitutes.

Figure 1. A bas-relief and a panting from ancient Egypt showing the use of donkeys for daily works.
Figure 1. A bas-relief and a panting from ancient Egypt showing the use of donkeys for daily works.

Bioactive Proteins and Peptides in Donkey Milk

Also in the case of αs1-casein, the heterogeneity is due to the presence of 5, 6 and 7 phosphate groups and non-allelic cleaved forms [41]. In these experiments, the native α-La was converted to the active bactericidal form by anion exchange chromatography in the presence of a C18:1 fatty acid (oleic acid) [51]. It has even been shown that multimericα-La can bind to the cell surface, enter the cytoplasm and accumulate in the nuclei.

Furthermore, it has been shown that the acidic pH in the stomach of the breastfed child can promote the formation of HAMLET, which contributes to the protective effect of breastfeeding against childhood tumors [56]. Cunsolo and co-workers [45] found the presence of β-casein fragments in the donkey milk whey protein fraction, which may result from the partial digestion of β-casein by endogenous proteases.

Table 5. Main proteins content in donkey milk (evidenced in bold) and comparison with bovine, caprine, and human milk.
Table 5. Main proteins content in donkey milk (evidenced in bold) and comparison with bovine, caprine, and human milk.

Conclusions

Efficacy of Oral Immunotherapy Protocol for Specific Oral Tolerance Induction in Children with Cow's Milk Allergy.IMAJ. Donkey and goat milk consumption and human health benefits with special reference to inflammatory status.Curr. Protein and fat composition of mare's milk: Some nutritional observations in relation to human and cow's milk. Int.

Donkey milk in children with atopic dermatitis and cow's milk allergy: crossover comparison with goat's milk. Adequacy and tolerance of donkey milk in an Italian cohort of children with cow's milk allergy.Ital.

Raw and Heat-Treated Milk: From Public Health Risks to Nutritional Quality

Method 1. Literature Search

The websites of authoritative institutions were also consulted: the European Food Safety Authority (https://www.efsa.europa.eu), the USA The legal framework for the sale of raw milk was searched in the Official Journal of the European Union (EUR- Lex, http://eur-lex.europa.eu/homepage.html). During the search of the most important literature databases, time limits were first set - the year of publication would be later than 2007 in order to collect the most recently published works.

Exclusion was applied to duplicate papers, articles not accessible to authors, or research studies dealing with raw milk other than cow's and with raw milk by-products. The display of the titles and summaries was performed by two authors (FM and VM).

Results and Discussion

The gastroenteric form of non-typhoidal salmonellosis is often associated with consumption of raw milk.Salmonellaspp. Most cases of foodborne brucellosis in humans are contracted through consumption of raw milk and its derivatives. The nutritional value of raw milk has been compared with heat-treated milk in the sections above.

2Fdmsdocument%2F1118-assessment-of-the-microbiological-risks-associated-with-the-consumption-of-raw-milk&usg=AOvVaw3Wmo0Ycg1gk84D9lavhx6n (accessed 2 October 2017). Quantitative risk assessment of human salmonellosis and listeriosis related to consumption of raw milk in Italy.J.

Table 5. Survival of microorganisms to heat treatments.
Table 5. Survival of microorganisms to heat treatments.

Milk and Its Sugar-Lactose: A Picture of Evaluation Methodologies

Lactose and Its Peculiar Role Nutrition

Methodologies for the Determination of Lactose

  • HPLC RI/HPAEC-PAD

Absorbance of NADH at 340 nm is calculated as the difference between the measurements before and after addition of the enzyme galactose dehydrogenase [20-22]. The differential pH technique for determining lactose and lactulose in milk samples is based on changes in pH due to enzymatic reactions. Lactose determination is performed by measuring the pH change caused by the reaction of glucose and ATP in the presence of hexokinase (HK) before and after treatment of the sample with β-galactosidase.

The determination of lactulose is carried out by treating the sample with a mixture of β-galactosidase and glucokinase in the presence of ATP. Carbohydrate separation and elution sequence is based on the differences in their pKa values, in fact HPAEC takes advantage of the weak acidic nature of carbohydrates to give highly selective separations at high pH using a strong anion exchange stationary phase.

Conclusions

Dried ice cream mixes and processed cheese - Determination of lactose content - Part 1: Enzymatic method utilizing the glucose part of lactose; International Organization for Standardization: Geneva, Switzerland, 2002. Dried ice cream mixes and processed cheese - Determination of lactose content - Part 2: Enzymatic method utilizing the galactose moiety of lactose; International Organization for Standardization: Geneva, Switzerland, 2002. Determination of Lactose Content in Liquid Milk by Spectrophotometric Enzymatic Analysis Using Weight Additions and Path Length Adjustment: Collaborative Study.J.

Determination of organic acids and sugars in cheese, milk and whey by high performance liquid chromatography. Food Res. Determination of mono- and disaccharides in milk and milk products by high-performance anion exchange chromatography with pulsed amperometric detection.

Therapeutic Potential of Milk Whey

  • Historical Background
  • Milk Whey Components
  • Therapeutic Properties of Milk Whey 1. Antimicrobial
  • Therapeutic Applications of Fermented Whey
  • Whey-Based Probiotic Products
  • Conclusions

This is due to the high content of tryptophan in alpha-lactalbumin, which increases the proportion of neutral tryptophan amino acids in plasma (Markus et al. BSA also binds to fatty acids stored in the human body; and thus also participates in lipid synthesis (Choi et al. Thus the reduction of proinflammatory cytokines may also be associated with weight loss after consuming whey protein and its amino acids (Luhovyy et al.

Whey proteins increase the level of glutathione in the body and help maintain a healthy immune system (Gupta et al. The mechanism involved is through the influence of whey proteins on the hormones that control appetite and hunger (Hall et al.) .

Table A1. Nutrient content of cheese whey types (dry matter basis).
Table A1. Nutrient content of cheese whey types (dry matter basis).

Dietary Milk Sphingomyelin Reduces Systemic Inflammation in Diet-Induced Obese Mice and

Animals and Diets

However, SM milk feeding significantly reduced serum inflammatory cytokines/chemokines compared with the HFD control (Figure 1A). In addition, milk SM did not affect cell viability at concentrations shown to affect pro-inflammatory gene expression (Figure 4C). Addition of imipramine did not reduce LPS-stimulated inflammation in the presence of milk SM (Figure 4D).

The anti-inflammatory effects of ceramides (sphingosine base), but not dihydroceramides (sphinganine base), suggest that sphingosine is important for bioactivity. Further research is warranted to confirm the mechanism and effect of dietary milk SM on inflammation.

Table 1. Diet Composition.
Table 1. Diet Composition.

Organic vs. Conventional Milk: Focus on Fat Fraction and Mineral Content

After investigating the composition of fatty acids and the content of fat-soluble vitamins in organic and conventional Italian milk products, some authors [23] concluded that among several parameters, thecis-9,trans-11 C18:2 (linoleic acids conjugated CLA)/Linolenic acid (LA) ratio value is characterized by better fat in organic milk than in conventional milk. While in conventional milk the minerals come from concentrated foods, in organic milk they derive mainly from the soil - in particular, from the various pastures. Regarding iodine content, it has been observed that in organic milk they are present in concentrations about 30-40% lower than in conventional milk [34,35].

36] on essential trace elements and some heavy metal residues in organic and conventional milk carried out in Spain, 2013. This study showed how some minerals (e.g. copper, zinc, iodine and selenium) are higher in conventional milk than in organic milk due to their presence in the power feed [36].

Nutritional Evaluation of Organic Milk in the Diet: Some Considerations on Fat-Soluble Vitamins and Iodine

Nutritional evaluation of organic milk in the diet: some considerations on fat-soluble vitamins and iodine. 34], both conventional and organic milk were collected from supermarkets in the UK; whereas, for the study of Rey-Crespo et al. 36], organic milk was collected from dairy farms and conventional milk was collected from both dairy farms and supermarkets in northern Spain.

In this context, the higher cost of organic milk can only be justified by the high cost of managing these farms. Antioxidant protection scales: A 2-year study of bioactive properties of organic milk in Poland.J.

Figure 2. (A) Percent contribution in one serving (125 g) of milk to Adequate Intake for vitamin E; (B) Percent contribution of beta-carotene to the Population Reference Intake for vitamin A (data from [27,39] were used to achieve the estimate).
Figure 2. (A) Percent contribution in one serving (125 g) of milk to Adequate Intake for vitamin E; (B) Percent contribution of beta-carotene to the Population Reference Intake for vitamin A (data from [27,39] were used to achieve the estimate).

Hình ảnh

Figure 2. Shows daily PP purchases at the individual school during the first academic year
Figure 1. Actual and Trends in Fluid Milk Sales 1975–2015. Source. US Department of Agriculture;
Table 1. Facebook Advertisements and Social Media Participation (2014).
Table 1. Cont.
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