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MAPK Pathway under Chronic Copper Excess in Green Macroalgae (Chlorophyta): Involvement in the Regulation of Detoxification Mechanisms

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Nguyễn Gia Hào

Academic year: 2023

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Pirsabak 2004 and Fakhar-e-sarhad showed a similar amount of Pb, Cd and Zn in their roots. However, Pirsabak 2004 presented more induced expression compared to Fakhar-e-sarhad in response to Zn treatment (Figure 5C). In response to Pb (Figure 6A), the expression of TaMET1 was reduced in both Pirsabak 2004 and Fakhar-e-sarhad.

On the contrary, the expression of TaMET3 was greatly reduced in both Pirsabak 2004 and Fakhar-e-sarhad compared to control in response to Cd treatment. In contrast to these, TaMET1, TaMET3 and TaCMT1 expression were downregulated in response to Zn treatment in Pirsabak 2004 and Fakhar-e-sarhad.

Figure 1. Screening of high-yielding wheat varieties based on their phenotypic characteristics against Pb toxicity
Figure 1. Screening of high-yielding wheat varieties based on their phenotypic characteristics against Pb toxicity

Materials and Methods

Basal DNA methylation represents the DNA methylation levels of each cultivar under control conditions. Role of arabidopsis DRM methyltransferases in de novo DNA methylation and gene silencing.Curr. Plant genomic DNA methylation in response to stress: potential applications and challenges in plant breeding. Route

Variation of DNA methylation patterns associated with gene expression in rice (Oryza sativa) exposed to cadmium. Protocol: A Beginner's Guide to the Analysis of RNA-Directed DNA Methylation in Plants. Plant Methods2014,10, 18.

MAPK Pathway under Chronic Copper Excess in Green Macroalgae (Chlorophyta): Influence on Metal

Introduction

Due to domestic and industrial activities, copper is recognized as one of the most harmful pollutants in the marine environment [15]. However, the dynamics and overall contribution of ERK and MAPK pathways in the regulation of metal tolerance mechanisms in macroalgae remain unclear. As with other photoautotrophs, no data have been published regarding the involvement of the MAPK signaling pathway in macroalgae photosynthesis.

In this study, we studied the role of the three major pathways within the MAPK signaling cascade on the physiological processes related to copper accumulation and photosynthetic activity in green macroalgae, using U. 1], we extended this study to explore the role of the MAPK pathway in U toxicity/detoxification mechanisms.

Results

Information on various functional components of the photosynthetic apparatus is acquired, including the maximum quantum yield of PSII (Fv/Fm), which implies the state of photoinhibition [28], the maximum electron transport rate (ETRmax), the photosynthetic efficiency (αETR), and saturation of irradiance (EkETR), which estimates photosynthetic capacity, efficiency and productivity, and non-photochemical quenching (NPQ), which is considered an indicator of photoprotection achieved through xanthophyll cycle-mediated energy dissipation [12,29]. Specific inhibitors of the ERK, JNK and p38 pathways were applied alone or in combination under copper excess. There were significant differences (p<0.05) in non-photochemical quenching (NPQmax) between certain treatments, but only on day 6 (Figure 6 Table S2).

PCO showed a positive correlation of the first axis (54.8% of total variation) with ETRmax, EkETR,αETRand, to a lesser extent, Fv/Fm. In both graphical representations, the combination of the first two axes explained 80.2% of the total variation (Figure 7a,b).

Figure 1. Intracellular copper accumulation in Ulva compressa under copper and/or exposure to mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) inhibitors
Figure 1. Intracellular copper accumulation in Ulva compressa under copper and/or exposure to mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) inhibitors

Discussion

Evidence from other photoautotrophs suggested that partial or complete inhibition of the MAPK pathways overstimulates other signaling pathways and increases copper exclusion/extrusion. Inhibition of the JNK or ERK pathways induced an increase in calcium content and deposition of these cells, overstimulating bone differentiation [ 38 ]. Although reports of the involvement of the MAPK pathways in photosynthesis are sparse, a connection was described for Glycine max (soybean).

In contrast, during most of the measurement periods, αETR, ETRmax and EKETRunder copper in combination with two or more blocked MAPK pathways were always lower than controls and when exposed to copper only. Furthermore, most of the significant differences among copper were induced when two or more MAPK pathways were blocked. Moreover, by inhibiting most of the MAPK pathways (at least two from ERK, JNK and p38), photosynthetic activity was impaired, supporting the idea of ​​potential crosstalk between the different studied MAPK pathways.

To confirm most of these hypotheses, a whole transcriptome representation of the blocked MAPK pathways during copper stress inU. compressa is currently being explored in our ongoing studies. To complement this article, in a parallel manuscript [1], we explore the roles of the ERK, JNK and p38 MAPK pathways in the copper detoxification mechanisms associated with antioxidant metabolism and synthesis of metal chelators in U. Sample collection and culture environmental conditions. Copper-induced intra-specific oxidative damage and antioxidant response in strains of the brown alga Ectocarpus siliculosus with different pollution histories.Aquat.

Response differences between Ectocarpus siliculosus populations to copper stress involve cellular exclusion and induction of the phytochelatin.Aquat biosynthetic pathway. Transcriptome sequencing (RNA-seq) analysis of the effects of metal nanoparticle exposure on the transcriptome of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.Appl. Phosphorylation of MAP kinase-like proteins mediate the response of the halotolerant alga Dunaliella viridisto hypertonic shock. Biochim.

MAPK Pathway under Chronic Copper Excess in Green Macroalgae (Chlorophyta): Involvement in the

Methodology

Then the samples were cooled to room temperature and the absorbance of 200 μL of the mixture was measured at 532 nm in a microplate reader. Immediately after the start of the reaction, absorbance at 412 nm was recorded in the microplate reader every 20 s for a total of 5 min. For GSSG quantification, 50μL of the neutralized supernatant was pretreated with 1μL 1M 4-vinylpyridine for 45 min at room temperature as a GSH masking agent and then mixed with 250μL GR buffer to complete the reaction.

For the determination of total ascorbate (ASC+DHA), 250 μL of the obtained supernatant was incubated with 2.5 μL of 100 mM dithiothreitol (DTT) for 1 h at room temperature. PCO analyzes were performed for the in vivo results of H2O2, TBARS, total glutathione ascorbate, as well as for the expression of the evaluated genes. Excess copper detoxification is mediated by a coordinated and complementary induction of glutathione, phytochelatins, and metallothioneins in the green seaweed Ulva compressa.

Copper-induced overexpression of genes encoding antioxidant system enzymes and metallothioneins involves the activation of CaMs, CDPKs and MEK1/2 in the marine algaUlva compressa.Aquat. Copper-induced synthesis of ascorbate, glutathione and phytochelatins in the marine alga Ulva compressa (Chlorophyta). Plant Physiol. Biochemical responses of the marine macroalgaeUlva lactuc and Fucus vesiculosusto cadmium and copper-from sequestration to oxidative stress.Biochem.

Towards a comprehensive phylogenetic reconstruction of the evolutionary history of mitogen-activated protein kinases in the plant kingdom. Front. Involvement of the OsMKK4-OsMPK1 CASCADE AND ITS DOWNSTREAM TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR OsWRKY53 in the wound response in rice. Plant Pathol. Copper-induced increased expression of genes involved in photosynthesis, carotenoid synthesis and C assimilation in the marine alga Ulva compressa.BMC Genome.

Table 1. Genes and primers for qPCR analyses.
Table 1. Genes and primers for qPCR analyses.

Insight into the Phytoremediation Capability of

Conclusions

Trace metals lead to the production of ROS, which causes an imbalance in the redox state in the plant cells and increases the level of oxidized proteins. We observed that the presence of metals influenced the increase in antioxidant enzyme activity, while no significant differences were observed in the levels of CuZnSOD and MnSOD transcripts and proteins. The uptake and bioaccumulation of heavy metals by food plants, their effects on plant nutrients and the associated health risk: an overview.Environ.

Molecular Mechanism of Heavy Metal Toxicity and Tolerance in Plants: Central Role of Glutathione in Detoxification of Reactive Oxygen Species and Methylgloxal and in Heavy Metal Chelation.J. The response of the defense system of pea roots to the two-element combinations of metals (Cu, Zn, Cd, Pb). Acta Biochim. Interactive effects of lead, copper, nickel and zinc on growth, metal uptake and antioxidant metabolism of Sesbania drummondii.

Effect of cadmium on growth and antioxidant enzymes in two varieties of Brassica juncea.Saudi, J. Effects of binary metal combinations on the uptake and distribution of zinc, copper, cadmium and lead in Brassica juncea.J. Phyto-extraction of zinc, copper, nickel and lead from a contaminated soil by various species of Brassica.Int.

Antioxidative defense system in Pisum sativum roots exposed to heavy metals (Pb, Cu, Cd, Zn).Pol. Hyperaccumulation of lead, zinc and cadmium in plants growing on a lead/zinc outcrop in Yunnan Province, China.Environ. Application of superoxide anion generation in the hypersensitive response of potato tuber tissue to infection with an incompatible race of Phytophthora infestans and to the hyphal wall components.

Selenium Modulates the Level of Auxin to Alleviate the Toxicity of Cadmium in Tobacco

Our objective was to (1) elucidate the function of auxin in tobacco growth under different doses of Se and Cd; (2) determine the mechanism by which Se increases tolerance to Cd stress; and (3) reveal the function of a phosphate transporter (NtPT2) in the interaction of Se and Cd in plants. In order to discover whether Se and Cd treatments affect the auxin signaling pathway, we analyzed the expression of genes from the YUCCA family and PINs, which are involved in auxin biosynthesis and transport in tobacco under different Se and Cd treatments. –C) Expression of three members (YUCCA6, 8, 9) of tobacco YUCCAs family genes in shoots under different supply conditions of Se and Cd concentration.;.

(D–F) Expression of three members (PIN1a, 1c, 4) of tobacco PIN family genes in roots under different supply conditions of Se and Cd concentration. Phenotype and IAA content of NtPT2-Oetransgenic tobacco seedlings under supply conditions with different concentrations of Se (10μM) and Cd (0, 20, 50μM); (C–E) Total P, Se, and Cd contents of the whole transgenic plant. To investigate whether auxin is a key regulator of plant growth and development under Cd stress conditions, we also checked the root characterization of inDR5::GUStransgenic tobacco under different Se and Cd concentration supply conditions by adding IAA (100 nM) .

Therefore, the function of cytokinin, ethylene, gibberellin and other hormones in tobacco root development under Se and Cd treatment needs further studies. However, the function of other hormones in tobacco root development under Se and Cd treatment needs further study. For IAA (indole-3-acetic acid, dissolved in 1 M NaOH) treatments, 100 nM IAA was added to the nutrient solution under different Se and Cd treatments, respectively.

Se and Cd content were determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS 7500A, Agilent, Palo Alto, CA, USA). Overexpression of a high-affinity phosphate transporter NtPT2 increased the content of P and Se and reduced the accumulation of Cd. Effects of Se and Zn supplementation on the antagonism against Pb and Cd in Vegetables.

Figure 1. Characterization of tobacco under different Se and Cd concentration supply conditions for 21 days
Figure 1. Characterization of tobacco under different Se and Cd concentration supply conditions for 21 days

Hình ảnh

Figure 7. CG DNA methylation levels at the promoter of TaABCC transporters in response to Pb (A), Cd (B) and Zn metals (C) and the basal DNA methylation levels (D) in the roots of Pirsabak 2004 and Fakhar-e-sarhad varieties
Figure 8. Proposed model for Pirsabak 2004 resistant and Fakhar-e-sarhad sensitive phenotypes.
Figure 1. Intracellular copper accumulation in Ulva compressa under copper and/or exposure to mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) inhibitors
Figure 2. Maximum quantum yield of photosystem II (PSII) (F v /F m ) in U. compressa under copper and/or exposure to MAPK inhibitors
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