The previous section 'defining data and information' used the transformation process to explain how data is transformed into information. In most organizations, business information systems (BIS) make extensive use of information technology such as personal computers.
Major categories of computers
This chapter provides an overview of the features common to a number of modern software applications and the way software can be used to support an organization's business activities. Software can be defined as a series of detailed instructions that control the operation of a computer system and exist as programs developed by computer programmers.
Fourth-generation languages, such as SQL, are built around a database system and make producing code even easier than third-generation languages. Utilities provide a set of tools that support the operation and management of a computer system.
Programming languages can be described in terms of their historical position in the development of computer programming systems. A major advance came with third generation languages such as FORTRAN, COBOL, BASIC, Pascal and C which greatly reduced the programmer's time in producing code.
Organising data in a database
An electronic database provides facilities for users to add, change or delete records as needed. This provides great flexibility and allows users to locate, retrieve and organize information as needed.
A computer-based database offers the advantage of powerful search tools that can be used to locate and retrieve information many times faster than manual methods. Indexing features mean that the same basic information can be stored in a number of different categories.
Retrieving Data from a Database
Additional benefits of networking include reducing costs of using facilities such as e-mail, reduced time for information flow, e.g. comparing e-mail to postal delivery, ability to share information by accessing a database over a network system, ability to share hardware devices such as such as printers over a network, using group work tools to share documents and other information. Click on the ad to read more Click on the ad to read more Click on the ad to read more Click on the ad to read more Click on the ad to read more.
An example of middleware is gateway software that allows an internal email system such as Lotus cc:Mail to send messages to other email systems over the Internet. Click on the ad to read more Click on the ad to read more Click on the ad to read more Click on the ad to read more Click on the ad to read more Click on the ad to read more.
STUDY AT A TOP RANKED
It is often described as the "glue" that binds the software applications to the system software. Middleware is also necessary to allow a single software application, such as sales order processing, to access different types of databases, such as Oracle, Informix or Microsoft SQL Server, that a large company may use. Middleware to support communications can be categorized according to a seven-layer model known as the OSI model.
INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS SCHOOL
The most common transactions identified as those when an organization uses the Internet to transact with consumers, called business-to-consumer (B2C) or when an organization is transacting with other businesses, called business-to-business (B2B). The relationship between a company and its suppliers and customers can be dramatically changed by the possibilities offered by the Internet. Some of these cost savings may be passed on to the customer in the form of cost reductions.
Intranets and extranets
The benefits of disintermediation are that it is able to eliminate the sales and infrastructure costs of selling through the channel. For example, in the travel industry, companies such as Tripadvisor provide information about destinations and hotels and then provide links to hotel providers.
The World Wide Web
Web browsers and servers
Companies that connect buyers and sellers, for example by offering content or creating marketplaces where business can be done. By automating many of the administrative tasks associated with ordering, delivering and delivering goods or services, the costs of a typical business transaction can be significantly reduced. In terms of customer-facing processes, for example, customer service efficiency can be improved by introducing a helpdesk on the company's website.
In general, the benefits of e-business include reduced costs, improved efficiency and access to larger markets. This is often one of the benefits of restructuring relationships between manufacturers, retailers and customers. The main choices when purchasing information systems can be categorized as ready-made (packaged) applications, custom applications developed by an internal IT department or a software house, and end-user developed systems (Bocij et al. , 2008).
A group of organizations in the same business or activity area may have information system requirements that may be very expensive to develop individually. Similarly, an off-the-shelf package may provide 80 percent of the required features, but others may need to be added through some custom development by either IS/IT professionals or by end users. Where the business has more specific needs and wants to achieve a competitive advantage, tailored and tailored approaches to procurement will be used.
Factors affecting software acquisition
The higher the degree of uniqueness in the area to be supported, the less likely it is that a suitable out-of-the-box package will be found. Of course, if the required system is complex and also has a high degree of uniqueness, then custom development by IS/IT professionals is probably the best acquisition method. A certain level of IS/IT literacy and expertise is required if end users are to be able to develop information systems.
The systems development life cycle
The input to this stage is the breakdown of the requirements that the proposed information system is expected to fulfill. In addition, various other operational attributes of the required system (eg those derived from the control design) will need to be programmed. Alternatively, it may be necessary to suspend the operation of the new system while the most important errors are fixed.
Redundant elements from the data model of the existing system are removed (if any exist) and additional required elements are added. Once the logical design is complete and 'signed off', the final stage can be undertaken. This stage is concerned with the delivery of the final blueprint from which the system can be developed and implemented.
Rapid applications development (RAD)
A review of the previous section on SSADM and the waterfall model will reveal that the analysis and design processes can be very laborious and time-consuming. A method is needed that allows for successive iterations in the development process so that the latest requirements can be integrated. Rapid Application Development (RAD) is a method of developing information systems that uses prototyping to achieve user involvement and faster development compared to traditional methodologies such as SSADM.
The spiral model
The Capability Maturity Model
Click on the ad to read more. Click on the ad to read more. Click on the ad to read more. Click on the ad to read more. Click on the ad to read more. Click on the ad to read more. Click on the ad to read more. per ad for more Click on ad for more Click on ad for more Click on ad for more Click on ad for more. This section discusses security threats to information systems before presenting methods for protecting information systems from these threats. Special emphasis is placed on the areas of computer viruses and threats to Internet services.
Security Threats to Information Systems
A logic bomb (sometimes known as a "time bomb") is a well-known example of how an employee can cause intentional damage to an organization's information systems. One of the most common security risks related to computer information systems is the risk of unauthorized access to confidential data. In addition, many people make a distinction between those who attempt to gain unauthorized access to computer information systems for malicious reasons and those who have other motives.
Reducing the Threat to Information Systems
It is possible, for example, to build a virus that instructs a disk controller to try to read a partition that does not exist, causing immediate and irreparable damage to the hard disk. Click on the ad to read more Click on the ad to read more Click on the ad to read more Click on the ad to read more Click on the ad to read more Click on the ad to read more Click on ad to read more Click on ad to read more Click on ad to read more Click on ad to read more Click on ad to read more Click on ad to read more Click on ad to read more Click on the ad to read more. A recovery-based strategy recognizes that, no matter how well protected, an information system security breach will eventually occur.
Types of controls
Virus shields are TSR programs that constantly monitor and control access to a system's storage devices. The third and final method of removing a virus is by restoring a backup copy of the infected disk to the system. The process of writing files to disk effectively overwrites the virus and restores the system to its original state.
Techniques for controlling information systems
The use of passwords can encourage employees to take some of the responsibility for the overall security of the system. It is necessary to verify the identity of users trying to access the system from outside the organization. However, by asking for a date of birth or other personal information, the user's identity can be confirmed.
Security Threats to Internet services
Initially, a backup copy of all data files is made and care is taken to ensure that the copy is correct. Usually the owner of the domain will ask for a large amount of money to transfer the domain to the interested party. Two examples of the risks associated with increased access to the Internet are defamation and cyberstalking.