Digital heritage”, a concept distinct from its physical counterpart, forms an integral part of the Digital Earth programme. Digital heritage focuses on the digital products derived from its cultural and natural heritage ontologies and related environment.
Digital Cultural Heritage Research and Technical Methods
- Space Archaeological Technology
- Digital Recording and Preservation of Cultural Heritage
- Heritage Ontological and Environmental Dynamic Monitoring
- Heritage Demonstration on Virtual Reality Technology
Based on principles of photogrammetry and remote sensing, it collects and digitizes ground control points by acquiring high-resolution remote sensing satellite and aerial photographs and uses photogrammetry software to produce high-precision maps of the heritage ontology. By obtaining data on the same cultural heritage object at different times, through comparative analysis, changed information identification and model calculation, the cultural heritage object's status and potential risks can be evaluated.
Digital Cultural Heritage Application Cases
A field archaeological survey, supported by GPS technologies and historical research material, confirmed the specific locations of the ancient phases. He laid the foundation of a scientific database to study the route of the ancient Silk Road and the changes in the ancient oasis in medieval China.
Cultural Heritage Monitoring and Protection
All original and processed data (flows, photographs, triangulations and grids), final products (orthophotos, DEM and 3D model) and derived information (profiles and volumes) were saved in KML format. We could not find any markings showing the linear traces of the Great Wall on Stein's map, but they are present on Hedin's map (Fig. 17.7c).
Virtual Reconstruction of Cultural Heritage
Third, to increase the lived experience and understanding of the public, Barsanti et al. It will reproduce the past glory of the ancient civilization of the Belt and Road through virtual reproduction of digital heritage.
The Development Trend of Digital Heritage
- The Depiction of Heritage Objects via Remote Sensing Technology Is Becoming Increasingly Precise
- The Demand for Durable Digital Heritage
- Data Integration, Development, Publication
- Increasingly Convenient Digital Technologies Are Adapted to Non-professional and Wide Public
- Quantitative Research Based on the Value Assessment of Natural and Cultural Heritage via Digital
- The Study of Effective Protection of Digital Heritage and Legal Protection Is Becoming Increasingly
Moreover, hyperspectral data will become increasingly important in the fine classification of natural and cultural heritage. There will be great potential in the future for the acquisition of natural and cultural heritage information based on the fusion of hyperspectral information and LiDAR height information.
Ruixia Yangis an associate professor of digital natural and cultural heritage at the Institute for Remote Sensing and Digital Earth, CAS. Jing Zhen is an associate professor at the Institute for Remote Sensing and Digital Earth, CAS.
Citizen Science in Support of Digital Earth
Following this example, the view expands to other approaches and categories of citizen science and their relationship to the Digital Earth. This chapter deals broadly with citizen science, but additional information about citizen science in the European context is presented in the chapter.
7.3) citizen science, the science built on the needs and expectations of the community (Haklay et al.2018a,b). Those new to citizen science often question the quality of the results produced.
Digital Earth Technologies for Citizen Science
These potential citizen science contributions can be considered Digital Earth Nervous System-DENS (De Longueville et al.2010). Moving beyond pure data collection, Digital Earth technology can also aid other dimensions of citizen science.
OpenStreetMap .1 Social Ecosystem
- Technological Ecosystem
- Other Citizen Science Projects: Social Innovation and Public Engagement
In addition, community building in the OSM community should also take into account how social bonds are formed around goals (e.g. the humanitarian mission of the Humanitarian OpenStreetMap Team), identity (e.g. academic actors from YouthMappers and GeoChicas) or place. as another dimension of connectedness. The semantic model, i.e. the non-spatial attributes associated with the geometric features, is more complex, but services such as the tag info (Open-StreetMap Contributors 2018a) help contributors to choose the most appropriate tags (key/value pairs).
Forms of Citizen Engagement and Distribution of Participation
- The “Power Law” Distribution of Participation
- Citizen Scientists Are a Minority and Have Specific Demographics
- Not Only Science: Citizen Science for Digital Social Innovation and the Role of Local Authorities
One could argue that specific demographics in citizen science may influence this distribution of participation. Local authorities and governments can play a leading role in championing citizen science and social innovation projects.
SEI.https://www.sei.org/featured/why-do-people-take-part-in-citizen-science/Accessed 3 December 2018. Climate Watch.http://www.climatewatch.org.au / news/local-governments-encourage-to-get-involved-and-encourage-citizen-science.
The Economic Value of Digital Earth
Introduction: Framing the Issue
As for the value of Digital Earth, a literature review doesn't help much. A query on "economic value of digital earth" on Google Scholar returns no entries, and a web search returns only the table of contents of this handbook.
Different Viewpoints on the Value of Earth Observation
- Definition of EO
- Value for Whom?
- Public Sector Perspective
- Private Sector Perspective
The value of EO data is easier to assess from an individual perspective in the mass market due to the daily use of EO-based solutions; assessing the value of EO from the perspective of the public and private sectors is more complex. From the public sector's point of view, the value of EO is primarily in informing policy-making and decision-making.
Review of Approaches and Methodologies to Assess the Value of EO
- Value of Information (VOI) Approach
- Economic Approaches
- Approaches Concerned with Maximization of EO Value
- Spatial data infrastructure
- Open access to data
EO value chain approaches – these approaches focus on assessing the value of EO across an entire value chain. Maximizing the value of EO through open access to data is similar to the previous approach.
Fritz S, Scholes RJ, Obersteiner M et al (2008) A conceptual framework for assessing the benefits of a global earth observation system of systems. Vandenbroucke D, Crompvoets J, Vancauwenberghe G et al (2009) A network perspective on spatial data infrastructure: application to the sub-national SDI of Flanders (Belgium).
Digital Earth in Europe
Rather, our aim is to provide an overview of the main contributions to the overall objectives of DE from Europe as a whole. Section 20.2 is devoted to an analysis of the information infrastructure in Europe and Section 20.3 presents the many developments in the context of big data from space. including Copernicus and Galileo) and its exploitation.
A comprehensive overview of the INSPIRE initiative and its content can be found on its geoportal (http://inspire.ec.europa.eu/). To monitor and evaluate the progress and extent of INSPIRE implementation in individual Member States, the Directive provides for two indicator-based mechanisms (Pashova and Bandrova2017).
Big Data from Space
- Space Component
- In Situ Component
- Core Services
- Data Access and Information Services
- Thematic Exploitation Platforms
The main objectives of the Volcano Pilot by the GEP are to (i) demonstrate the feasibility of integrated, systematic and sustained monitoring of Holocene (i.e. the current geological epoch) volcanoes using space-based EO; (ii) demonstrate the applicability and improved timeliness of space-based EO products to reduce the impact and risk of eruptions;. It is interoperable with GPS and GLONASS, (i.e. the US and Russian GNSS, respectively), and by relying on a large constellation of satellites and exploiting multiple frequencies, it will provide better service to the users, with real-time positioning accuracy in the meter range (Hecker et al.2018c).
- Citizen Science in the European Policy Landscape
- FP7 and H2020 Citizen Science Projects
- Initiatives and Platforms in EU Member States and Public Organizations
The level of consideration of CS in the upcoming Horizon Europe program is still under discussion. Another JRC activity that directly addresses European policy-making is the development of the CS platform (EC 2019a).
Digital Europe and Horizon Europe
This will be done by funding advanced cyber security equipment and infrastructure as well as by supporting the development of the necessary knowledge and skills. Horizon Europe will help meet the Union's strategic priorities and support the development and implementation of its policies.
Bio Innovation Service (2018) Citizen science for environmental policies: development of an EU-wide inventory and analysis of selected practices.https://publications.europa.eu/en/publication-detail/. EC (2018a) Digital Earth, EU Science Centre.https://ec.europa.eu/jrc/en/research-topic/digital-earth.
Digital Earth in Australia
Increasingly frequent extreme environmental events such as chronic drought, extreme bushfires and flooding have catalysed internationally recognized innovation in this area, in addition to the requirement for large-scale infrastructure planning along the eastern coast and in northern Australia (Australian Government 2015), and the national need to report on performance – relating to people and planetary systems – through the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals (Griggs et al. 2013). Australia has been at the forefront of developing and implementing Digital Earth concepts over the past two decades (Woodgate et al.2017).
An Historical Context of Geospatial Initiatives
- National Initiatives
- State Initiatives
The open source software, now managed by the Department of the Prime Minister and Cabinet, is available as a GitHub project. The new API-based system aims to automate the backbone of the development application submission process for councils, reducing duplication of data and effort.
Digital Earth Australia
- Product Development for Enhanced Access
- Implementing Projects to Enhance Take-up
Information regarding the extent and relative elevation profile of the exposed intertidal zone (between the highest and lowest tides). Produce mosaics to visualize the Australian coastline and reefs at high and low tide.
Australian Use Case Examples
- Agricultural Sector—FarmMap4D
- Education Sector—Research Group (ISDE Research Node, Australia)
- Capacity-Building System
- Remote Immersive Collaboration Spaces—DENs
- Disaster Management—NSW Volunteer Rescue Association
In response to this challenge, and in collaboration with colleagues at the International Society for Digital Earth (ISDE), the "Digital Earth Node" (DEN) collaboration spaces were designed to encourage productive thinking and timely decision-making. However, a breakthrough in software made the software "do" the heavy lifting, resulting in almost no latency difference for end users and unparalleled flexibility in the amount of real-time editing and review possible.
Australia and New Zealand Cooperative Research Center for Spatial Information.https://www.crcsi.com.au/assets/Resources/85b6037b-1f35-412e-b416- 44dbb741c556.pdf. Spatial Source, 4 August.https://www.spatialsource.com.au/gis-data/lessons-learned-relaunch-queensland-globe.
Digital Earth in China
- China’s Digital Earth Strategy and Policy
- National Macro Strategic Plans for Digital Earth in China
- Policies and Plans for Development of Digital Earth in China
- Infrastructure for Digital Earth in China
- China’s Experience in the Development of Digital Provinces and Cities
- Digital Fujian
- Digital Hong Kong and Digital Macao
- Development of Digital Earth Applications in China
- Digitalization: Drawing and Depicting China
- Digitalization to Make China Different
- Digitalization to Drive and Promote China’s Development
The development of the plan was led by the National Development and Reform Commission and the Ministry of Industry and Information Technology. The development of all infrastructure and related digital technologies is of great importance to the development of China's Digital Earth.
Digital Earth in Russia
Two main factors determine the strong interest in the concept of Digital Earth in Russia. The second important factor that creates a strong interest in the concept of Digital Earth in Russia is the dominance of space exploration in the national mentality.
Prehistory and Precursors of Digital Earth in Russia
- Cultural Precursors of Digital Earth in Russia
- Technological Prerequisites of Digital Earth in Russia
The first image of the Earth from outer space was produced in 1947 with the help of the US-launched German V-2 missile (NASA 2017). In 1959, the Soviet automatic station Luna-3 captured the first image of the far side of the Moon.
Introducing Digital Earth in Russia
The launch of the Google Earth web service in the first half of 2005 had an inspiring and thought-provoking effect and spurred the process of adopting the Digital Earth paradigm in Russia. The first scientific article with the term "Digital Earth" (in Russian) in its title registered in the official Russian scientific database E-Library was published in 2013 (Lisitsky2013).
Establishing the Digital Earth Russia Community
The positive dynamics and rapid recognition of the Russian Digital Earth community attracted the attention of colleagues abroad. At the 7th Digital Earth Summit held in Al-Jadida, Morocco in 2018, ISDE Council decided to organize the next (2020) 8th Digital Earth Summit in Russia.
Exploration of Digital Earth in Russia
Digital Earth: Russian Government Initiatives
A specific feature of Russian policy in the field of remote sensing is the desire to ensure independence and autonomy in space. In accordance with this policy, the country is developing all elements of the Digital Earth infrastructure of the future.
Infrastructure of Digital Earth in Russia
- Remote Sensing Constellation
- National Global Navigation Satellite System
- The International Global Aerospace System (IGMAS)
- The ETRIS-DZZ System
- The SPHERE Project
- Services and Applications
Historically, the first predecessor of the modern Digital Earth Russia system was the IGMAS (International Global Aerospace System) project, proposed in 2009 (Menshikov2009). Nevertheless, the need to create a fully equipped digital Earth was obvious due to the practical needs of a huge country.
Digital Earth Russia: Private Business Initiatives
The third major step in the evolution of Sputnik GIS was the release of support for the Agisoft PhotoScan *.tls format. Thanks to its user-centric approach, significant upgradeability and full integration with state-of-the-art UAVs, Sputnik GIS became an effective replacement for Google Earth as a nationwide Digital Earth platform.
The culmination of the Digital Earth Vision adoption process was its manifestation as the central ideology of national space remote sensing in 2017. The process of coordinating national activities with the International Society for Digital Earth through the establishment of the Russian ISDE chapter was completed.
Digital Earth Education
- Digital Earth for K-12
- Digital Earth for Higher Education
- Instructional Technologies
- Academic Curricula
- Experiential Learning: Academic Certificates and Internships
- Digital Earth Education to Professional Careers
- Geospatial Competency-Based Models
- Geospatial Frameworks
Elsewhere, students have used the technology to design a high-speed railway loop (France), map invasive flora (Canada) and identify locations for street lights to improve public safety (Japan) (Kerski et al.2013). In this way, the curriculum is specifically designed to suit different student learning styles (Dolan et al. 2017).