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PDF Learning in the Digital Age

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Nguyễn Gia Hào

Academic year: 2023

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In August 2015, I began teaching a course called Learning in the Digital Age at Oklahoma State University. I hope that future editions will continue to add to the OER repository and our understanding of learning in the digital age.

CHAPTERS

CHAPTER 1

The renaissance of board games in the digital age is sometimes attributed to the proliferation of board game channels on Youtube (Muench, 2017), or the need to socialize and interact in person (Jolin, 2016). Drawing on the board game literature, this chapter discusses board games and how the re-emergence of these games in the 21st century can provide an opportunity to understand learning in the digital age.

INTRODUCTION

In other words, the digital age is characterized by digital technology that shapes the way people live and interact (Ngelime, 2018). Although Africa has creatively embraced the digital age and can no longer be considered outside the digital age world (Ngelime, 2018), board games have always been popular in different communities or ethnic groups (Nxumalo & Mncube, 2018).

LEARNING AND BOARD GAMES IN THE DIGITAL AGE

However, as mentioned earlier, the notion of a resurgence of board games in the digital age cannot without doubt be applied to Africa. In addition, board games tell us that learning in the digital age is also about interactions and community.

Figure 1. Warhammer 40.000 adapted from Games Workshop  Berland  and  Lee  (2012)  explored  Pandemic 3   (Figure  2),  a  collaborative  board  game  in  which  players  team  up  to  fight  diseases and keep the world safe
Figure 1. Warhammer 40.000 adapted from Games Workshop Berland and Lee (2012) explored Pandemic 3 (Figure 2), a collaborative board game in which players team up to fight diseases and keep the world safe

CONCLUSION

A first look at this statement seems to indicate that board game players want to stay away from digital technologies. The social component of board games can inform the design of learning settings in the 21st century.

Retrieved from http://karlkapp.com/board-games-and-card-games-leading-the-learning-game-field-in-2018/. The invasion of the German board games. Retrieved from https://www.dailymaverick.co.za/article board-games-are-quietly-nerdily-becoming-big-business/#.WudR5I37ljo.

WHAT IS BLENDED LEARNING?

WHY BLENDED LEARNING?

In other words, blended learning allows teachers to adapt learning to students. As explained by Horn and Staker (2015), “Blended learning is the engine that can drive personalized and competency-based learning” (p. 10).

BLENDED LEARNING MODELS

The rotation model is the most common model of blended learning used by primary school teachers. Although the models of blended learning described above are the most common, it is not uncommon to see a mixture of models developed in classrooms.

DESIGNING A BLENDED EXPERIENCE

For example, an elementary school teacher might use a "station rotation" model, but would "flip" whole group instruction to make efficient use of his time with students.

COMMUNITY & CULTURE

Promoting a culture of learning means shifting from a traditional teacher-centered model to a learner-centered model, which allows students to direct their own learning while the teacher is available to provide personalized direct instruction to a small group of students or individual students. one (p. 403). Require students to create and maintain a digital portfolio and provide links for the rest of the students to view.

MOTIVATION & ENGAGEMENT

Studies indicate that motivation increases when students have opportunities to make choices about what they learn and when they believe they have some autonomy or control over their own learning” (p. 25).

CONTENT & ORGANIZATION

Based on the work of Gambrell (as cited by Boushey & Moser, 2014), "Choice has been identified as a powerful force that allows students to take ownership and responsibility for their learning. In short, purpose and choice equal motivation and engagement .. chunking") techniques, "helped the students reduce cognitive overload and allowed them to focus on the content without being overwhelmed" (p. 24).

ASSESSMENT

COMMUNICATION

Lack of feedback can often have negative effects on the learning environment, whether online or in person.

PERSONALIZED LEARNING

UNIVERSAL DESIGN FOR LEARNING

Have students predict the results of assignments or tests. Regardless of the strategies used, the ultimate goal of providing multiple modes of engagement is to create a sense of purpose and motivation for all students (Cast.org, 2014). It is important to provide opportunities for “perception, language and symbols, and understanding” (Cast.org, 2014).

QUESTIONS TO CONSIDER

CHAPTER 3

Administrators and instructors are expected to incorporate the best use of technology into their courses and remain aware of the ever-changing landscape of educational technology, “The effective use of technology is not an optional extra or a skill that we can simply expect teachers to pick up when they arrive to the classroom. Instructors are increasingly expected to become experts in their specialty, as well as in new teaching pedagogies that use changing technology.

MOTIVATION

Mature learners must be able to apply the knowledge in their life situations" (June, 2010). Essentially, mature learners are more likely to question educators and educators need to be proactive in their facilitation of their courses and have reasonable justification for why they are.

ONLINE AND BLENDED LEARNING

All of these factors have led to a huge increase in online learning at all levels of education, from K-12 to higher education. Online learning is very popular in the early 21st century, however, it does not come without its controversies.

PODCASTS

With the wide variety of cell phones on the market, podcasts' applicability to multiple products makes them desirable in education. While doctors are in the elevator or at lunch or driving to and from work, they can continue to expand their knowledge with podcasts.

VODCASTING

If it helps some students supplement other materials and allows them to expand their knowledge, they will be able to reach and teach those students in a way that they might not be able to without podcasts. Providing options in the course design for students will help them feel motivated to try new things and perhaps learn more about their own ways of learning that they didn't know before and be able to relate their own personal use of podcasts to what they already know. to their education.

ITUNES U

CHAPTER 4

Institutions concerned with academic integrity in their online courses are considering the use of virtual protector software designed to protect against academic dishonesty in their students. These statements, in accordance with institutional academic integrity policies, must be included in the syllabus" (para 4).

LMS CONTROL PROCEDURES

According to Kiviniemi (2015), "the consequences should be serious, should cause students some psychological pain, and should require effort on the part of the student to overcome. When setting up the online learning course exam, the instructor can adjust the time the student takes the exam so that the timing is consistent with the student's cognitive processing and reading skills.

HUMAN PROCTORING

An instructor can choose how to display the exam questions to the student: all at once or one question at a time; that the questions are random for each student; or if the instructor wants to allow—or prevent—the student from withdrawing or preventing changes to an answer already submitted. Students travel to this site to take their exam so that both proctor and student are in the same physical space.

VIRTUAL PROCTORING

Students may also be required to do a 360-degree survey of their environment, including the specific area next to their computer where the student is taking the exam. Instructors can then review the student's sample test and address any issues before the first exam.

PEDAGOGICAL EXPERIENCES WITH CHEATING VIOLATIONS

The Respondus software program allowed me to review records of students taking their exams (submitted) within 24 hours of the exam session. There were options to view each student's exam session in its entirety or to review student thumbnails at random times.

DOES VIRTUAL PROCTORING DETER STUDENTS FROM CHEATING?

While Watson and Sottile (2010) used an academic dishonesty assessment tool with undergraduate and graduate university students, they found no significant differences in student admissions of cheating in live (face-to-face) and online courses. Thus, technological innovations such as virtual proctoring improve instructors' confidence that online summative assessments can be as safe as those administered in the presence of a human proctor (James, 2016).

CONCLUSIONS

CHAPTER 5

An excellent tool for dealing with rapidly growing data is the creation of a Personal Learning Network (PLN) (Delaney & Redman, 2014; Perez, 2012; Trust, 2012). PLN is a community of individuals all over the world learning together.” Although Ferguson specifically mentions a professional learning network, the mechanics of how a network works are much the same as a personal learning network, just with a different focus.

TOOLS FOR BUILDING A PLN

Furthermore, the ability to build one's own network makes it possible to develop a highly tailored approach to learning. As you will see, building a PLN gives one the freedom to develop tools, skills, and knowledge that specifically fit one's learning needs.

HOW TO BUILD A PLN

This is a great start and it connects me to an organization that caters to my personal interest and to a Facebook page where I will engage with other people who share my passion for drumming. No one wants to hang out on a Facebook page where the last post was three months ago.

ADDITIONAL RESOURCES

CHAPTER 6

To remain competitive, companies must be focused on keeping their employees up to date with the latest industry standards and complying with new regulations. It eliminates the saying of "this is how we've always done it" and embraces the concept that learning doesn't have to be "one-size-fits-all".

TYPES OF LEARNING

Images spin and flip, text flows with sound, and the user can click buttons and icons to learn the topic. Most business environments have embraced the digital tools available to their employees to learn new techniques, maintain regulatory compliance, and develop their leadership skills.

TYPES OF LEARNERS

It may or may not be work related, but they find a need to answer a question and will search for ways to learn about it. The types of learners, whether generational or situational, will find ways to learn what they need to maintain or develop their positions and themselves.

WHAT ARE THE GOOD THINGS ABOUT DIGITAL

Now to look at the learning method in terms of "on-demand learner" or a "social learner". This type of information, often referred to as "tribal knowledge", cannot be found through 'on-demand' technology resources.

LEARNING?

Again, employers should embrace this knowledge base and allow time during the day to participate. This alleviates some of the training costs and ensures consistent training content for their employees, especially since the content can be taught to a large number of employees at once.

WHAT COULD POSSIBLY GO WRONG WITH DIGITAL LEARNING?

The courses are created at the time of use and cannot be adjusted to the user's needs. The user must ultimately search for their own answers or just be content with not knowing all the information.

Ultimately, digital learners acquire the knowledge they want from the learning situations in which they are placed. Experienced learners will know how to obtain the information they are looking for and where to apply this knowledge.

CLOSING

CHAPTER 7

Summary – This chapter is intended to provide a framework and understanding of digital literacy, what it is and why it is important. The following discussion is an overview of digital literacy, its essential components and why it is important for learning in a digital age.

MOVING FROM LITERACY TO DIGITAL LITERACY

By looking at literacy as a historical phenomenon whose characteristics have evolved over time, we can gather the basic characteristics of the digital age. This is not to value-judge the characteristics of literacy, but rather to explain some of the many reasons why it spread.

LITERACY IN THE DIGITAL AGE

People who adapt well to the digital world exhibit characteristics that enable them to develop and maintain digital literacy skills. Together, these characteristics of the digital age guide us in understanding what qualities a learner will need to be successful in a digital environment.

REVIEWING EXISTING FRAMEWORKS FOR DIGITAL LITERACY/IES

Not immediately obvious, but part of the challenge of finding information is the ability to manage the results. Some of the skills needed to communicate in a digital environment include digital citizenship, collaboration and cultural awareness.

Figure 1. Underlying foundation of digital literacy includes technical,  cognitive and social skills (Ng, 2012)
Figure 1. Underlying foundation of digital literacy includes technical, cognitive and social skills (Ng, 2012)

PARTING THOUGHTS

Another important digital skill is collaboration, and it is essential for effective participation in digital projects over the internet. A digital skill is not the same as digital literacy, but the two are completely intertwined.

LEARNING ACTIVITIES

Ng's (2012) conceptual framework reminds us that digital literacy is the space where technical, cognitive and social literacies overlap. Create your literacy narrative that tells the story of your own significant experience with digital literacy.

RESOURCES

Combining both aspects of the genre, write a piece based on your technological literacy and choose a medium that you think best conveys the message you want to share with your audience. The SCONUL7 pillars of information literacy through a digital literacy lens. Retrieved from https://www.sconul.ac.uk/sites/default/files/documents/.

ORGANIZATIONS AND EDUCATIONAL SYSTEMS EMPLOY PLAY

To alleviate anxiety that may be associated with the pressure to create (Lotts, 2016), organizations and educational systems cultivate attitudes of play by including things and processes that normally occur outside the adult workplace (Statler et al., 2011). Work-related goals, those considered serious, are achieved through the use of techniques more commonly associated with play (Statler et al., 2011).

WHY CULTIVATE AN ATTITUDE OF PLAY?

Physical space may include Lego blocks, corporate activities may include physical movement involved in meaning construction (Statler et al., 2011), and meetings may include snacks and toys (Harrison & . West, 2014).

PLAY IN THE DIGITAL AGE CLASSROOM

WHAT HAPPENS NEXT?

CHAPTER 9

Abstract: A digital divide is an economic and social inequality in terms of access to, use of, or impact of information and communication technologies. The digital divide includes differences in both access (first-level digital divide) and use (second-level digital divide) of computers and the Internet between (1) industrialized countries and developing countries (global divide), (2) different socio-economic groups within a single nation-states (social divide), and (3) different types of users in terms of their political engagement on the Internet (democratic divide) (Schweitzer, 2015).

HOW DID THE DIGITAL DIVIDE BEGIN?

Higher bandwidth: Fiber optic cables can carry much more data than copper cables of the same diameter. In the summer of 1995, the new National Telecommunications & Information Administration issued a report entitled Falling Through the Net: A Survey of the 'Have Nots' in Rural and Urban America (Rapaport, 2009).

WHO DOES THE DIGITAL DIVIDE EFFECT?

Interestingly, urban teachers are more likely to say that students have poor access to the Internet at school, while rural teachers are more likely to report that students have poor access at home (Zickuhr, 2012). The difference in online access is also evident in what has been called the "homework gap" - the gap between school-aged children who have access to high-speed internet at home and those who do not.

BRIDGING THE DIVIDE

This is one of the many programs that have been used to bridge the digital divide. Programs such as Close the Gap and Connect2Compete have been implemented to bridge the digital divide.

NAMIBIAN HISTORY

Walvis Bay is home to the port and the fisheries sector, which is the third economic sector contributing to the country's GDP. The drive to hold the country together and maintain peace, stability and prosperity has been one of the country's highest gains on various indices.

NAMIBIA HIGHER EDUCATION

The country has experienced low economic growth for four years since 2016, leading to high unemployment, which reached 33.4% in 2018 (Cirrus Capital). The country is home to four major commercial banks, three of which (First National Bank, Standard Bank and Nedbank) are of South African origin and one (Bank Windhoek) was established in Namibia during apartheid.

FEES MUST FALL NAMIBIA

I understand that Unam has to pay the bills etc but that does not justify the increase. Bank loans require a guarantor, which many students cannot provide due to the majority poor black population.

DISCUSSION

The Minister of Higher Education appointed by the new President in 2016 has been a subject of controversy in the media since his appointment. Finding a useful funding model for Namibia's higher education is essential if the government is to avoid further turmoil.

IMPLICATION FOR FUTURE RESEARCH

CHAPTER 11

CHAPTER 12

ADDITIONAL READINGS

VIDEOS

Hình ảnh

Figure 1. Warhammer 40.000 adapted from Games Workshop  Berland  and  Lee  (2012)  explored  Pandemic 3   (Figure  2),  a  collaborative  board  game  in  which  players  team  up  to  fight  diseases and keep the world safe
Figure 2. Pandemic adapted from Anderson (2016).
Figure 3. Songo board game adapted from Owona (2004)  Songo  gameplay  involves  the  use  of  proverbs  as  a  means  to  demonstrate  players’  level  of  expertise,  fast  and  complex  calculations  (Njock,  1985;  Mbarg  Owona,  2004)
Figure 4. Tsoro board game adapted from http://home.kpn.nl/
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