The study considered the effect of including black tea infusion on the physicochemical properties, antioxidant capacity and microstructure of the system during a 28-day cold storage period. The results obtained show that the defatted products retained the same nutritional properties as the whole cheese.
Eﬀect of Season and Factory on Cheese-Making Eﬃciency in Parmigiano Reggiano Manufacture
- Materials and Methods 1. Cheese-Making Process
Effects of herd milk storage temperature on cheese yield losses in Parmigiano-Reggiano cheese production. Own. Seasonal variation of milk characteristics and cheese yield losses in Parmigiano-Reggiano cheese production. Own.
Inﬂuence of Zinc Feeding on Nutritional Quality, Oxidative Stability and Volatile Proﬁle of Fresh
Materials and Methods
At the end of the experimental period, an increase in the content of vaccinic acid (C18:1trans11; p<0.05), rumen acid (RA; p<0.01) and total polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA, p<0.05). In the case of esters, dietary zinc supplementation caused an increase in butanoic acid ethyl ester (p<0.01) and hexanoic acid ethyl ester (p<0.05) at the end of the ripening period.
Furthermore, in this study, Zn appeared to provide antioxidant protection as at the end of 90 days of ripening (T90) TBA values, although increasing in both experimental groups, were found to be significantly lower in samples of cheese derived from dietary Zn. completion. Regarding esters, the EG samples analyzed at the end of the ripening period were characterized by higher concentrations of butanoic acid ethyl ester and hexanoic acid ethyl ester.
Molecular cloning and nucleotide sequence of the gene encoding the major Lactococcus lactis peptidoglycan hydrolase, muramidase, required for cell separation.J. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).
Chemical-Sensory Traits of Fresh Cheese Made by Enzymatic Coagulation of Donkey Milk
Materials and Methods 1. Milk and Cheesemaking Trials
Total fatty acids (TFA) analyzes were performed on milk, whey and cheese by gas chromatography (GC), as reported by Faccia et al. Identification of the protein bands was done by comparison with the data reported by Egito et al.
Results and Discussion
The different fat content of the two types of milk should play a role in the formation and release of VOCs. Protein composition and size of donkey milk micelles with different protein patterns: effects on digestibility. Int.
Eﬀect of Diﬀerent Starches on the Rheological,
Sensory and Storage Attributes of Non-fat Set Yogurt
Materials and Methods 1. Materials
The ash content of the yogurt samples was determined using the AOAC method, where 5 g of the yogurt sample was heated in a muffle furnace at 550 °C for 5 hours, and the residue was expressed as % ash content. Yogurt firmness was calculated according to the method described by Steﬀe 1996 .
Results and Discussion 1. Shear Viscosity
The highest yield stress of corn and Turkish starches indicates structural stability of the gel. Regarding whey off, all the starches significantly reduced whey off without any preference.
Characterization of Defatted Products Obtained from the Parmigiano–Reggiano Manufacturing Chain
Determination of Peptides and Amino Acids Content and Study of the Digestibility and
Materials and Methods 1. Cheese Defatting
The defatted samples in the amount corresponding to 1 g of processed cheese were suspended in 4.5 mL of 0.1 M HCl; as an internal standard, the dipeptide Phe-Phe was added to a final concentration of 50 μM. In the case of digests, a blank digestion was also analyzed according to the procedure described above.
Results and Discussion 1. Defatted Products
To evaluate possible variations in the composition of the nitrogen fraction as a result of the degreasing procedures, an amount corresponding to 1 g of starting material (untreated cheese, control sample) was used. A UPLC–MS analysis of the acid extracts was performed to evaluate their content in nitrogen compounds. Interestingly, none of the nitrogen compounds previously characterized in the acid extracts were detected in significant amounts in the digested samples, except for NPADS.
No statistically significant difference was found, although the antioxidant capacity of the defatted cheeses was slightly higher than that of the whole cheese. To also evaluate the influence of the defatting processes on the presence of ACE-inhibitory compounds in the digested samples, the ACE-inhibitory capacity was measured according to a procedure described in the literature [20,21].
Characterisation of Formaggella della Valle di Scalve Cheese Produced from Cows Reared in Valley Floor
The chance that the taster will have to guess the different sample is 33%, regardless of the perceptibility of the difference. On the other hand, long-chain fatty acids were higher in the cheeses produced from whey milk. The results of the sensory analysis, carried out on winter samples, show that the tasters could not always find significant differences.
Funding: Work carried out with the contribution of the Region of Lombardy (Regional Agricultural Program TLead Institution: Municipality of Vilminore di Scalve (BG); Partner: Scalve Valley Mountain Community (ComunitàMontana della Valle di Scalve) and Scalve Social Mountain Dairy (Latteria Sociale Montana di Scalve). Influence of the nature of alpine pastures on plasmin activity, fatty acid and volatile composition of milk.Lait.
Nutraceutical and Technological Properties of Buﬀalo and Sheep Cheese Produced by the Addition of Kiwi
Materials and Methods 1. Experimental Design
Kiwi extract was obtained by a modification of the method described by Katsaros et al. The beef rennet used for coagulation of BM-C and SM-C cheeses was NATUREN®PLUS 215 (activity=215 IMCU/mL; chymosin 63%; pepsin 37%) (CHR HANSEN, Hoersholm, Denmark). This assay provided measurements of setting time (r) in min, curd setting time (k20) in min and curd firmness (A30) in mm .
The kiwi extract significantly affected the color of the cheese (Table 2), reducing the lightness of both sheep and buffalo cheese. Among the odorants most characteristic of kiwi fruit, we found only (E)-2-hexenal (representing about 80% of VOCs in pulp kiwi fruit), ethyl caproate and 2-hexen-1-ol in both buffalo and sheep cheeses.
Applicability of Confocal Raman Microscopy to Observe Microstructural Modiﬁcations of Cream
Materials and Methods 1. Cream Cheese Treatments
Measurements of the proton self-diffusion coefficient (D) were performed using a low-field NMR spectrometer (Bruker MiniSpec, Bruker BioSpin GmbH, Rheinstetten, Germany) operating at 20 MHz and at a temperature of 20 °C with a gradient of pulsed field. Echo method (PFG-SE). For these components, it was simply possible to observe a baseline shift at different wavenumbers, as already reported by Yang et al. Moreover, these observations were representative of the cheese samples, as observed by the microstructure observations made on different parts of the samples (Figures S15 and S16).
The use of confocal Raman microscopy allows one to better distinguish the effect of the freeze-thaw processes of two different cheese creams. Therefore, it was not possible to visualize the presence and distribution of different sugars and stabilizers, which probably contributed to the different freezing stability of the cheeses.
Eﬀect of Black Tea Infusion on Physicochemical Properties, Antioxidant Capacity and Microstructure
Results and Discussion 1. Physicochemical Characteristics
On day 1, ingestion of tea infusion, regardless of the level added, did not result in a change in firmness compared to control (Table 2). The impact of tea infusion on dairy gel firmness is not fully understood and published data are inconsistent. Such results indicated that addition of tea infusion can make the acidified dairy gel slightly more brittle.
The difference in antioxidant activity is due to the different supplementation volume of the original tea infusion. The higher percentage of tea infusion presented in GDTs, the more antioxidant capacity and TPC.
Antioxidant, Antibacterial Activities and Mineral Content of Buﬀalo Yoghurt Fortiﬁed with Fenugreek
The individual polyphenols of fenugreek and moringa seed flour were identified using the HPLC technique according to . We extracted 5 g of fenugreek and moringa seed flour with methanol (50 mL) and centrifuged it for 10 min at 1000 rpm (centrifuge model C-28 AC BOECO, Hamburg, Germany). Incorporation of fenugreek and moringa seed flour increased both TPC and AOA as shown in Figure 1.
Yogurt fortified with moringa and fenugreek seed flour showed higher antibacterial activity compared to control yogurt. Effect of processing techniques on nutritional composition and antioxidant activity of fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum) seed meal. J.
Development of a Multifunction Set Yogurt Using Rubus suavissimus S. Lee (Chinese Sweet Tea) Extract
Materials and Methods 1. Chemicals
The TPC of Chinese sweet tea extract powder and yogurt samples was measured using the Folin-Ciocalteu assay . Effect of Chinese sweet tea extract on the chemical composition of yogurt samples. The addition of Chinese sweet tea extract had no significant effect (p>0.05) on pH values.
This finding may be due to the bioactive compounds in the Chinese sweet tea extract. Sensory evaluation of yogurt samples fortified with Chinese sweet tea extract is shown in Table 7.
Preparation and Characterization of Soy Isoﬂavones Nanoparticles Using Polymerized Goat Milk Whey
The PGWP and PGWP-SIF solutions were diluted to a protein concentration of 0.1% with deionized water . The particle size of nanoparticles was dependent on the concentrations of SIF in PGWP-SIF. The increase in the viscosity of the nanoparticles can be attributed to the entrapment of SIF in the PGWP networks.
Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images of PGWP and PGWP-SIF are shown in Figure 8. The particle size of nanoparticles varied from 135 nm to 155 nm due to the concentrations of SIF in PGWP-SIF.
Comparative Proteomics of Milk Fat Globule Membrane (MFGM) Proteome across Species and
Bovine MFGs and the MFGM 1. Formation of Bovine MFGs and MFGM
The microlipid droplets (yellow circles) are extruded from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) into the mammary gland epithelial cell cytoplasm to reach the apical plasma membrane, where they are extruded into the alveolar lumen as MFGs. Bovine MFGM consists mainly of polar lipids that make up 0.2–1% of the total milk fat. During the secretion of the MFGs, the components are rearranged within the apical plasma membrane and the MFGM [4,31].
ADPH, also known as perilipin 2, is a major component of MFGM and is localized in the inner monolayer membrane. BTNs are members of the immunoglobulin (Ig) superfamily, and BTN1A1 is the form in human MFGM [28,29,56].
Comparison of MFGM Proteome between Diﬀerent Species and Lactation Stages
Regarding the MFGM proteome across different species, Lu and collaborators  identified and quantified 143 proteins in human, cow, goat, and yak MFGM, respectively. They found a higher number of proteins than in their previous study; especially 543 and 858 proteins in colostrum and mature milk. Cao and collaborators identified and quantified 176 glycoproteins in human colostrum and mature milk, and bovine colostrum and mature milk, respectively.
Human colostrum and mature milk shared 362 glycoproteins, whereas bovine colostrum and mature milk shared 155 glycoproteins (Figure 6). In any case, each study is a step forward in the knowledge of the MFGM proteome.
MFGM: Potentials in Infant Formula Preparation
Biochemical and morphological comparison of plasma membrane and mammary fat globule membrane of bovine mammary gland. Characterization and comparison of membrane N-glycoproteomes of milk fat globules from human and bovine colostrum and mature milk.Food Funct. Quantitative proteomic analysis of milk fat membrane (MFGM) proteins from donkey colostrum and mature milk.Food Funct.
Characterization of the milk fat globule membrane proteome in colostrum and mature milk from Xinong Saanen goats.J. Developmental changes in the mammary gland membrane proteome during the transition from colostrum to milk.J.