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Printed Edition of the Special Issue Published in Metabolites

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Nguyễn Gia Hào

Academic year: 2023

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In particular, the production of biodiesel from algae is severely limited by the energy involved in cell disruption and lipid extraction. However, due to the UV interference mechanism, cell wall characteristics may not affect the interference efficiency.

Figure 1. UV induced necrosis and apoptosis of C. reinhardtii cells visualised using Olympus BX50 microscope, 50 × objective
Figure 1. UV induced necrosis and apoptosis of C. reinhardtii cells visualised using Olympus BX50 microscope, 50 × objective

Materials and Methods 1. Algae Strains and Cultivation

Samples were evaporated to dryness with nitrogen gas and reconstituted with 250 μL of methanol:chloroform (1:1) mixture. The samples were cooled for 10 min before 300 μL of ultrapure water and 600 μL of hexane were added, then vortexed for one minute.

Conclusions

After this, samples were transferred to glass bottles and 100μL 10% BF3/methanol added before incubation at 80◦C for 90 min (14 samples of C. reinhardtiian and 24 samples of M. inermum, including collected supernatant samples). Samples were reconstituted in 100μL hexane and submitted for gas chromatography-flame ionization detection (GC-FID) (Thermo Finnigan TRACE 1300 GC-FID System, Thermo Scientific, Hertfordshire, UK) together with a TRACE™ column TR-25× 0, 32 mm ID × 0.25 μm film, Thermo Scientific, Hertfordshire, UK).

Quenching for Microalgal Metabolomics: A Case Study on the Unicellular Eukaryotic Green Alga

Introduction

Finally, the influence of the sample to quenching solvent ratio should also be carefully considered, as this directly changes the temperature of the quenching process and can help minimize intracellular metabolite leakage. The aim of this study is to quantitatively investigate the influence of the above factors on the rate of metabolite leakage in C.

Results and Discussion

The number of metabolites detected in the supernatant is also the lowest compared to the other treatments (Figure 3d). In the case of ketones and ethers, all treatments (except with 60H70) showed leakage (Figure 5a).

Figure 1. Experimental design and general workflow adopted for the evaluation and optimisation of quenching protocols for Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.
Figure 1. Experimental design and general workflow adopted for the evaluation and optimisation of quenching protocols for Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.

Materials and Methods

In the case of phosphates, absolutely no recoveries were observed in the quench supernatant among all the treatments used. In summary, almost all metabolite classes showed a gradual decrease in intracellular levels with a corresponding increase in extracellular levels as sample contact time with quenching solvent was increased.

An Improved Genome-Scale Metabolic Model of Arthrospira platensis C1 (iAK888) and Its Application

Materials and Methods

For ATP, the ATP maintenance flux was optimized when CO2 and photon uptake fluxes were set to zero. Thus, the flux of glycogen production was simply determined by the flux of the glycogen synthesis reaction.

Table 1. Comparison of biomass constituents between iAK888 and iAK692.
Table 1. Comparison of biomass constituents between iAK888 and iAK692.

Results and Discussion

In terms of glycogen content (Figure 5B) and glycogen production flux (Figure 6B), cells undergo PO43- and SO42-. Specific increase in growth rate (A) and flux of glycogen production (B) under control, NO3-, PO43-, and SO42-depleted conditions.

Table 2. Comparison of network model characteristics of A. platensis species.
Table 2. Comparison of network model characteristics of A. platensis species.

Modulation of Polar Lipid Profiles in Chlorella sp. in Response to Nutrient Limitation

Results

Media nitrate concentrations in the HN cultures were not completely depleted during the batch culture and were still high (approximately 5 mM) at the end of the experiment (16 days; Figure 1b). Nitrate concentrations in the LN cultures were reduced to 0.0003 mM and phosphate concentrations were reduced to undetectable concentrations (<0.0001 mM) by the end of the culture period. In the LN cultures, the carbon/nitrogen ratio increased linearly from 5 near the beginning of the culture (day 4) to a value of 50 at the end of the culture period.

Of these lipid classes, MGDG was the most abundant glycolipid, consistently accounting for 35-43% in the HN cultures during batch culture, but decreasing from 36 to 19% in the LN cultures. PC concentrations constituted between 4 and 7% of the polar lipid classes in biomass from HN cultures (maximum concentration 0.05 ± 0.03 mg mg C−1) and similarly between 2 and 4% in LN cultures (maximum concentration 0 .04 mg/mg C) and mean concentrations were generally significantly higher (p= 0.047) in the HN cultures.

Figure 1. (a) Biomass (particulate organic carbon, POC) production, (b) media nutrient concentrations, and (c) particulate carbon/nitrogen ratio in Chlorella sp
Figure 1. (a) Biomass (particulate organic carbon, POC) production, (b) media nutrient concentrations, and (c) particulate carbon/nitrogen ratio in Chlorella sp

DWW\$FLG

Discussion

Interestingly, in this study the significant relative increase in the concentrations of DGDG as a function of total polar lipid (which did not generally agree with the other polar lipid classes) suggests a physiological stress response adaptation to nutrient stress. Although there were overall reductions of polar lipid classes in biomass under nutrient limitation, there were clear differences in the magnitude to which individual polar lipid classes were modulated as a function of biomass produced. Under nutrient-limited conditions, the relative composition of FA acyl groups in polar lipids was similarly affected across most polar lipid classes, i.e., increase in the saturation of carbon chains.

This was particularly noticeable in the reduction of the widespread MGDG 34:7 species (mainly 18:3/16:4 contained). This study supports the idea that a reduction in degrees of unsaturation is common to both neutral and polar lipid classes when conditions of nutrient limitation are present.

The Bacterial Phytoene Desaturase-Encoding Gene (CRTI) is an Efficient Selectable Marker for the

Materials and Methods 1. Strains and Culture Conditions

Norflurazon sensitivity was assayed on multi-well plates with the corresponding agar-solidified medium supplemented with the indicated concentrations of the herbicide. Drops (10 μL) of concentrated cultures of the microalgae Tetraselmis suecica, Dunaliella salina, Dunaliella bardawilland Chlorella sorokinian were spotted on agar solidified culture medium with increasing concentrations of the bleaching herbicide norflurazone (from 0 μg m5 days) and their growth was 0–1 m5 days. after inoculation. Drops (10 μL) of concentrated cultures of transformants T1, T11 and T19 obtained as described in the legend of Figure 2 were spotted on agar-solidified TAP culture medium with increasing concentrations of the bleaching herbicide norflurazon (from 0 to 200 μg ml-1) and their growth was evaluated 10 days after inoculation.

Isolation and characterization of the phytoene desaturase gene as a potential selectable marker for genetic engineering of the astaxanthin-producing green alga Chlorella zofingiensis (Chlorophyta).J. Genetic engineering of the green alga Chlorella zofingiensis: a modified norflurazon-resistant phytoene desaturase gene as a dominant selectable marker.

Intracellular and Extracellular Metabolites from the Cyanobacterium Chlorogloeopsis fritschii, PCC 6912,

Results

A similar pattern was observed from the extracellular PCA data (Figure 1B), with increasing variance with increasing length of UV-B exposure. As expected, an increase in shinorin (retention time ~4.9 min, λmax=334 nm) was observed with increasing length of UV-B exposure. A significant accumulation of glu (p≤0.01) was observed only after 12 h of PAR, while a marked decrease was observed after 12 h of UV-B exposure.

Palmitic acid and stearic acid remained relatively stable over time with a significant reduction observed during UV-B exposure. Gly and ser abundance remained consistent with significant decreases after 6 and 12 h, respectively, during UV-B exposure.

Figure 1. Principle component analysis (PCA) of (A) intracellular and (B) extracellular gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC–MS) data of UV-B exposed (PAR + UV-B) Chlorogloeopsis fritschii (C
Figure 1. Principle component analysis (PCA) of (A) intracellular and (B) extracellular gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC–MS) data of UV-B exposed (PAR + UV-B) Chlorogloeopsis fritschii (C

Discussion

Proline accumulation has been observed in Nostoc punctiforming during 24 h of UV-A stress [18], in the model plant organism Arabidopsis after 24 h of UV-B treatment [40], and also inC. Sugars such as galactose, arabinose, lyxose and xylose are actively released during UV-B stress [5] as seen in this experiment (Figure 4). The fatty acid mystric acid shows a similar pattern of reduced abundance with increasing UV-B length in both samples (p≤0.05 intracellular; p≤0.05 extracellular).

To understand the changes in primary metabolites and metabolic process with increasing length of UVR exposure to further understand secondary metabolite production and adaptation of cyanobacteria to UV stress. Further studies are needed to understand and verify these processes within cyanobacteria to aid in the understanding of UV stress adaptation at the metabolite level.

Materials and Methods 1. Organism and Growth Conditions

If none of the time points contained "true hits", the peaks were removed before further analysis. MetaboAnalyst was used to statistically analyze the IS peak lists (in .csv format) of the time series data using the time series/two-factor module. Missing data points were imputed as blanks and replaced with half of the smallest integrated signal in each data set.

Effects of abiotic stressors on the synthesis of the mycosporin-like amino acid shinorin in the cyanobacterium Anabaena Variabilis PCC 7937.Photochem. The UV-B Stimulon of the Terrestrial Cyanobacterium Nostoc Commune consists of Early Shock Proteins and Late Acclimation Proteins.

Effects of Copper and pH on the Growth and Physiology of Desmodesmus sp. AARLG074

Materials and Methods 1. Organism and Culture Conditions

Copper uptake and uptake by three marine microalgae: Comparison of copper-sensitive and copper-tolerant species. Aquat. Effect of pH on copper and zinc uptake and toxicity in a tropical freshwater alga (Chlorellasp.). Effect of copper and salicylic acid on phenolic metabolites and free amino acids in Scenedesmus quadricauda (Chlorophyceae). Plant Sci.

Bioabsorption of cadmium, copper and lead by the red macroalga Gelidium floridanum: Physiological responses and ultrastructural characteristics. Ecotoxicol. Transcriptomic and metabolomic analysis of copper stress acclimation in Ectocarpus siliculos highlights signaling and tolerance mechanisms in brown algae.BMC Plant Biol.

Improved Algal Toxicity Test System for Robust Omics-Driven Mode-of-Action Discovery in

Materials and Methods 1. Algae Culturing

The growth medium was sterilized by 0.22 μm filtration to avoid MOPS degradation, salt precipitation, and carbon equilibrium shift caused by autoclaving [ 108 ]. 5.25×106 (7 mL) were taken from the synchronized samples at each time point, and the sampling volume of the non-synchronized samples was adjusted to match this cell number by preliminary electronic cell counting. To expose the cells, independent quadruplicate batches of synchronized cultures were grown in open-flask culture and at the beginning of the light phase the cell cultures were individually concentrated by centrifugal separation in 50 ml tubes at 1200 × g for 3 min (Eppendorf , Eppendorf 5920 , Stevenage, UK).

Ten biological replicates for each of the control and CB groups were seeded into capped vials, incubated for 3 hours, harvested as described below, and cell pellets stored at -80°C until metabolite extraction. 39] To maximize the number of reproducibly detected m/z features, the dilution of the reconstituted algal extracts was first optimized (see results in Supplementary Table S1).

Figure 9. Individual steps for centrifugal concentration, cell density measurement, dilution, seeding of C
Figure 9. Individual steps for centrifugal concentration, cell density measurement, dilution, seeding of C

Conclusions

The specific NADP isozyme was reported in both mitochondria and cytosol, with mitochondrial enzyme activity being about 25% of that in cytosol [75,79]. Folate coenzymes, which are involved in this transfer of C1, have been reported to be located mainly in the cytosol [79]. The most stable, Mg-dependent variant was reported to be found only in the cytosol [114].

Two enzymes involved in the synthesis of cysteine ​​(serine O-acetyltransferase and cysteine ​​synthase) were reported in the E. However, the localizations of the enzymes involved in the synthetic pathway have not been elucidated.

Figure 1. Protein transport into the secondary chloroplast of Euglena. Nuclear encoded chloroplast pre-proteins (blue strip) are synthesised into the lumen of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) where the signal peptide (SP) is cleaved
Figure 1. Protein transport into the secondary chloroplast of Euglena. Nuclear encoded chloroplast pre-proteins (blue strip) are synthesised into the lumen of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) where the signal peptide (SP) is cleaved

Materials and Methods 1. Identification of Euglena Enzymes

Enolase from Trypanosoma brucei, from the amitochondriate protist Mastigamoeba balamuthi, and from the chloroplast and cytosol of Euglena gracilis: Pieces in the evolutionary puzzle of the eukaryotic glycolytic pathway.Mol. Evolution of carboxylating enzymes involved in paramylon synthesis (phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase and carboxykinase) in heterotrophically grown Euglena gracilis.Planta. Separation and properties of the NAD-linked and NADP-linked isozymes of succinic semialdehyde dehydrogenase in Euglena gracilis.Biochim.

A comprehensive assessment of the biosynthetic pathways of ascorbate, α-tocopherol and free amino acids in Euglena gracilis var. Integral membrane proteins of the chloroplast envelope: identification and subcellular localization of new transporters. Proc.

Figure 3. Subcellular location prediction workflow for Euglena proteins. Abbreviations:
Figure 3. Subcellular location prediction workflow for Euglena proteins. Abbreviations:

Far-Red Light Acclimation for Improved Mass Cultivation of Cyanobacteria

Materials and Methods 1. Experimental Design

  • HPLC

Dry weight (g L−1) was then calculated by subtracting the final filter weight and the prefiltered weight. Acknowledgments: The authors would like to thank all CSAR technical staff for supporting the project. Global Transcriptional Profiling of the Cyanobacterium Chlorogloeopsis Fritschii PCC 9212 in Far-Red Light: Insights into the Regulation of Chlorophyll d Synthesis.Front.

On the question of the light-harvesting role of β-carotene in photosystem II and photosystem I nuclear complexes. Plant physiol. Influence of the N:P supply ratio on biomass productivity and time-resolved changes in elemental and bulk biochemical composition of NannochloropsisSp.

Hình ảnh

Figure 2. Relative cell viability of C. reinhardtii at various exposure times to ultraviolet light in the stationary and active growth phases
Figure 5. Comparison of biodiesel yield from disruption methods of nitrate rich C. reinhardtii culture.
Figure 4. Comparison of biodiesel yield from disruption methods used on nitrate stressed C
Figure 6. Comparison of biodiesel yield from UV light exposed M. inermum. Fatty acid methyl ester yields from both bead beating and ultraviolet light irradiation disruption is shown above
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