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Nguyễn Gia Hào

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Inquiries regarding the use of the book should be directed to the rights and permissions department of INTECHOPEN LIMITED (permissions@intechopen.com). He is Head of the Department of Environment and Director of Scientific Affairs and Cultural Relations at the College of Sciences, University of Kufa.

## Introduction

In the present study, Saccharomyces cerevisiae D7 strain was used to estimate the RBE values ​​of 3 MeV proton beam and an attempt was made to derive the mathematical formula for calculating the RBE value with respect to the dose. In the present study, Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain D7 was used to study the biological effects of 3 MeV proton radiation using cell survival and gene conversion endpoints.

## Materials and methods

The profile of the beam was measured by scanning the entire area of ​​the titanium window. The influence of the proton beam at the source detector was calculated to measure the absorbed dose.

## Results and discussion

The variance in the measurements was calculated using the following equations, in Eq. 9) the variables kG, nG, kT and nTara. The variance in the measurements was calculated using the following equations, in Eq. 9) the variables kG, nG, kT and nTara.

## Conclusion

Another reason for the higher RBE value is the energy deposition pattern of the 3 MeV proton radiation. The RBE value of 3 MeV protons was found to decrease with dose and ranged from 3.61 to 1.80.

## The biologically effective dose (BED)

Nowadays, the radiosensitivity studies' function of the absorbed dose (d) is described with the cell survival (S), which is the complement of cell death (K), and probably S = 1-K. Many of the current works, such as [5–8] related to the interrupted treatment directly use the BED expression or with some modifications involving elements such as the cell repopulation.

### The BED in brachytherapy (BT)

This means that if radiotherapy is given in several phases, then the BED for each phase can be added together to get the total BED. BED is one of the state-of-the-art important tools for the compensation of discontinuous irradiation, where, as described in [5], three BED values ​​(original for the initial prescription, used before the discontinuity, and new to compensate the discontinuity) are considered.

## The radiation biological effect (RBEf)

The BED is one of the most current important tools for the compensation of interrupted radiation treatments, where, as described in [5] three values ​​of BED (originally for the initial prescription, applied before the interruption and a new one for the compensation of the interruption ) be considered. 11) one can derive the current equivalent dose in 2-Gy fractions (EQD2) in Gy, i.e. the Eq. The BED is also expressed as the product of the total physical dose (D) and a dimensionless factor RE as.

## The radiobiological computational simulators (RCSs) The computational simulations have led to the development of three

The specific duration of treatment will depend on many different factors, including the required rate of dose delivery and the type, size and location of the cancer, and is still calculated from the prescribed dose. The application of RCS to interrupted treatments will represent an extension of the new methodology already applied to regular treatment.

## Conclusions

This makes a better real simulation of the process of interaction of ionizing radiation with living tissues. The surviving cells complement the former, that is, S = 1�K, where S: cell survival and K: cell death.

## The main part

1. The population is not aware of the measures to be taken by the competent state, municipal and other authorities in the event of a radiological. 3.According to the results of the study, the state of radiation protection in Bulgaria has gaps, and the experts give a higher assessment of the reality than the other two groups.

## Conclusions

Analysis and optimization of the nationwide automated system for continuous monitoring of the radiation gamma background. Construction and management of the national automated system for continuous monitoring of the radiation gamma background in Bulgaria.

## The source of natural radioactive

This chapter describes γ and alpha loss of nuclei and demonstrates how to measure the radioactive material naturally using a Solid State Nuclear Trace Detector (SSNTD) and a High Purity Germanium Detector (HPGD). Methods for measuring the different characteristics of the alpha particle using the track profile technique (TPT) will also be presented.

Aerosol concentration has attracted a lot of attention from many researchers in the last decade. Therefore, it is important to measure soil radiation from uranium and uranium decays such as thorium, radium, and radon.

## Radioactive decay 1 Alpha decay

Gamma decay

• Measurement of alpha particle and radon
• Determination of the bulk etching rate V B and range of alpha particle The method involves a direct measurement of the track lengths in both phases of
• The concentration of radon and the annual effective dose
• Neutron activation analysis
• Measurement of gamma ray
• Conclusions

Consequently, the maximum value of the trace length (Lmax) at the saturation point and also the corresponding saturation time (tsat), which is the time required for trace length to reach the maximum and constant value, must be determined in accordance with the energy of the alpha particle which in turn can be used to calculate VV according to the relation [6]. Comparison of the concentration ranges of some elements in Jazan (present work) and other places in the world.

## Al-Naggar and Doaa H. Shabaan

### Materials and methods 1 The samples

• Theoretical concepts

Fifty grams from each sample was placed in plastic can as its natural form without any process, a piece of CR-39 manufactured by TASTRACK. Background CR-39 detectors were recorded in this study and subtracted from the net traces for each sample.

The high values ​​of radon concentrations in food are due to the presence of any type of ionizing radiation present in the air, soil or water that is transferred to the food and grown on it [19]. This will become visible under the optical microscope upon suitable chemical etching of the SSNTDs, the most commonly used CR-39.

### Closed-can technique measurements 1 The buildup of radon concentration equation

• Closed-can technique (two different detectors)

Measurements with closed can technique 2.1 The structure of the radon concentration equation 2.1 The structure of the radon concentration equation. The secular equilibrium is important for the calculation of the activity concentration of radon in the canning technique.

Radon and thoron are found in outdoor and indoor air when they exhale from soil and building materials on walls, floors and ceilings. The exposure of the detector inside the cup is termed the cup mode and the exposed open is termed the bare mode.

### Equilibrium factor

3.The ventilation rate as a function of the web density ratio between sat dus and can mode. Ventilation rate is one of the parameters used to describe the disturbance caused in radioactive equilibrium of radon/thoron and its descendants in air.

### Determination of the radon diffusion coefficient in porous medium The diffusion of radon is a process determined by radon gas concentration

Determination of the radon diffusion coefficient in porous medium The diffusion of radon is a process determined by the concentration of the radon gas. The determination of the radon diffusion coefficient with this method is usually carried out under steady state conditions.

### Transmission factor

115) is non-linear equation; therefore, the radon diffusion coefficient D can be calculated numerically using the Newton-Raphson method. IFβ is small, and using quantity relation in Eq. 116), we can approximate the evolution of the radon diffusion coefficient by a simple relation such as:

### The calibration factor

Quantitative measurements with single and multiple SSNT detectors can only be performed if the calibration factor is known. The theoretical calibration factor is calculated per unit (cm), and the experimental calibration factor measures Track cmBq�m�3�day�2.

### Conclusion remarks

3. The radon concentration reaches equilibrium (tﬃ7T_(1/2)) at the same time, regardless of the volume of the container. The preparation of the brachytherapy seed, which is charged by the resin beads, is also presented.

• Calculation of excitation function
• Nuclear models applied for cross-section calculations
• The thickness of the target
• Preparation of 103 Pd brachytherapy seeds
• Dosimetry of the seed

The required thickness of the target is calculated via the stop and range of ions in matter (SRIM) code [21]. The physical thickness of the rhodium layer is chosen in such a way that for a given radius/.

### Results and discussion 1 Excitation function

• Production of 103 Pd
• Dosimetry method

This phantom was used for measuring the anisotropy function of the brachytherapy seed. The method for the theoretical calculation of the brachytherapy seed was previously explained in Ref.

### Biological impact of uranium: pharmacokinetics

• Oral route
• Inhalation route
• Dermal contact

Additionally, U levels in bone (femur samples) were found to be 13 times higher than in controls. In case of ingestion, the digestive tract is the first biological system exposed to U uptake through the intestinal lumen.

### Uranium toxicity and its main target organs

• Renal toxicity
• Effects on bone tissue

Although the structure of the glomerulus appears to be intact, at the glomerular level, a widening of Bowman's capsule is evident [41] (Figure 2). 11] reported that 25% of the systemically administered U is deposited in the skeleton and tends to bind to the newly formed bone.

### Chelating agents in uranium poisoning

• Bisphosphonates as chelating agents to avoid lethal poisoning by uranium Bisphosphonates are used clinically to prevent osteoclastic bone resorption

70] showed the attenuation of the inhibitory effect of radiation on bone formation when the animals were treated with ethane-1-hydroxy-1,1-bisphosphonate (EHBP). Chemical determination of U incorporated in the bone and a histological study of the kidneys were performed by Guglielmotti et al.

### Discussion

HE 100X) Histological sections of metaphyseal bone of a control animal (A), an animal 48 hours after intoxication with uranyl nitrate (UN) (B), and an animal intoxicated with UN and treated with oral EHBP, 14 days after intoxication (C). In UN-intoxicated and EHBP-treated animals (C), note that instead of reduced cartilage width compared to control, proliferating cells in growth cartilage and subchondral bone are evident. HE 100X) Histological sections of the interradicular alveolar bone of a control animal (A), an animal 48 hours after intoxication with UN (B) and an animal intoxicated with UN and treated with oral EHBP, 14 days after intoxication (C ).

### Conclusion

The long-term effects of uranyl nitrate on the structure and function of the rat kidney. Defective production processes in aSiO2 are therefore mainly controlled by the nature and content of the various impurities.

### Experimental part

Doping processes of oxide glasses with rare earth (RE) ions greatly influence the nature and content of different paramagnetic defects produced during exposure to ionizing radiation. Then the influence of both doping ion content and integrated radiation dose on the nature, content and relative proportion of the various paramagnetic defects produced during ionizing radiation will also be considered.

EPR spectra of RE-doped ABS glass: b-irradiation dose effect

### EPR spectra of RE-doped ABS glass: RE concentration effect

Specifically, the reduction of different hole centers (HC) is analyzed according to the nature of the dopant ion ([HC]Eu > [HC]Sm > [HC]Nd > [HC]Ce). However, a decrease in the relative proportion of hole centers of different defects (BOHC, Oxy, HC1) can be observed for different Nd-doped ABS glasses (Figure 7).

### Optical spectra: Effect of RE doping on defect band

This effect could also explain the evolution of the EPR spectra of Eu-doped ABS glasses (Figures 5a and 5b) as a function of the content of doped ions. This figure shows the decrease in the relative contribution of the BOHC and E′ centers in the EPR defect spectra.

### Summary and outlook

Hyperfine structure of the 29Si center of non-bridging oxygen holes and the peroxy radical in a-SiO2. Multiple interconversions of E' defect centers and oxygen holes in high-purity amorphous silica during annealing with interrupted x irradiation.

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