It furthers the University's mission by disseminating knowledge in the pursuit of education, learning and research at the highest international levels of excellence. Gilchrist examines monastic archeology through the lens of the material study of religion and reveals the sensory experience of religion through case studies, including Glastonbury Abbey and Scottish monasticism. Her work offers new insights into medieval identity and regional distinctiveness, healing and magic, and memory practices in the sacred landscape.
London and a similar example in the Louvre Museum 96 3.15 Schematic of distillation equipment and 16th-century drawing. 6.18 3D visualization of the "old church" at Glastonbury Abbey (Somerset) 210 6.19 Reconstructions of the "old church" at Glastonbury by Spelman (1639). My interests in medieval archeology and heritage finally converged through my ongoing involvement with Glastonbury Abbey, firstly through my academic research into the archeology of the abbey and secondly through my involvement in site conservation and public interpretation.
The first Scottish evidence prompted me to reflect more closely on issues of national identity, both in the construction of archaeological knowledge today and in the regional expression of material religion in the past. But this is not a simple case of nominative determinism: Gilla Cristmeans servant of Christ and was a popular Gaelic personal name in the twelfth and thirteenth centuries (Hammond2013:33).
SACRED VALUES: MEDIEVAL ARCHAEOLOGY AND SPIRITUAL
Some completely reject the idea that people were formerly motivated by a concept of the numinous. Medieval archaeologists have often reflected on the importance of formal liturgy in the design and use of churches. Questions of the sacred have also been largely neglected by the field of heritage studies.
Locations associated with events in the life of a deity, saint or prophet (eg the Church of the Nativity in Bethlehem; al-Aqsa Mosque in Jerusalem). The understanding of sacred heritage is culturally conditioned and constantly evolving, based on local perceptions of the spiritual authenticity of landscapes and material culture. Most of the relics from Turku date from the fourteenth century, but some were much older.
A Roman temple was built in the second century AD. on the site of the destroyed (second) temple. The resurgence of interest in pilgrimage among faith groups is clear evidence of the modern value of sacred heritage. Maddrell concludes that the legacy of the Keills is treated as a 'spiritual resource' by the islanders.
Archaeological authenticity is considered important because there is interest in the continuity of the keeills with earlier ritual practices (Maddrell2015:144).
MONASTIC ARCHAEOLOGY AND
NATIONAL IDENTITY: THE SCOTTISH MONASTIC EXPERIENCE
Scottish church studies were finally promoted in the 1950s by the Scottish Catholic Historical Association with the development of the Innes Review. There is little doubt that Scotland's later medieval monasteries have been eclipsed by those of its 'Golden Age', the so-called Celtic monasteries of the sixth to ninth centuries. Scandinavian kings and bishops established monasteries from the twelfth century in imitation of Europe's 'Catholic core' (Nyberg2000).
Monastic life in Scotland changed rapidly with the energy of the Canmore house, which spread its patronage widely (Figure 2.9). The location of the monastery was clearly determined by the desire for visibility and dominance over the landscape. It is possible that the thirteenth-century crypt under the east side of the Benedictine church also contains earlier material.
What can we learn about the process of transition and the hybrid practices that developed on the site of earlier Culdees. Barrow cites comparable situations in Canterbury and Dublin towards the end of the twelfth century and the beginning of the thirteenth century (Barrow. Insight into the lifestyle of the converted Culdees is provided by an episode documented in Monymusk in the early thirteenth century.
Shortly after 1200, the site was terraced to prepare for the construction of the new church and monastery. Temporary structures were identiﬁed in the southern part of the site: an early kitchen and oven were found under the later western boundary (Ewart 1996). The church of the Augustinian Priory was built of stone, beginning in the usual manner at the east end.
The May excavations also showed continuity in the island's unusual burial practices, which continued during and after the monastic occupation. A cemetery north of the church contained layers of graves separated by beach stones in the shape of a cairn (Figure 2.15). The mastery of funerary rites and practices would have been an important factor in the religious transition of the twelfth century and merits further study.
Traditional elements have also been retained in the redevelopment of Scottish culdees, such as the Irish-inspired round towers at Brechin and Abernethy and the graveyards in May. These elements continued in the reformed monasticism of the 12th century, with the important exception of curved enclosures, which were prominently replaced by cruciform corridors.
SPIRIT, MIND AND BODY
THE ARCHAEOLOGY OF MONASTIC HEALING
Care in the infirmary was based on the concept of liturgy and a healing regimen supported by the sacraments, sacred relics, devotional images and sacred music. The medical historian Carole Rawcliffe has commented on the lack of documented evidence for the establishment of specialized institutions for the care of the sick before the Norman Conquest. What determined the choice of location for the foundation of medieval hospitals, the choice could have been influenced by previous use of the location.
For example, at the Augustinian monastery of St Mary Merton (Surrey), 13 percent of the skeletal population of. There were five cases of surgical intervention at St Mary Spital: two amputations and three trephinations, where a piece of the skull is cut and removed (Connell et al, Figure 3.3). The location of monastic ﬁrmaries to the east of the monastery also derives from this understanding of contagion, following the Hippocratic notion that the healthiest place was in the east (Bell 1998: 220).
The scale and complexity of the incendiary varied depending on the size and wealth of the monastery's foundation. Patient beds were located in the corridor, with the central space kept clear for the circulation of nursing staff. The chapel may have appeared from the hall, but direct visual access to the altar was important for patients to benefit from the healing power of the Eucharist.
The infirmary at the Tironensian abbey of Kelso in the Scottish Borders was excavated to the south-east of the main cloister. It was not uncommon for the comfortable spaces of the inﬁrmary to be used by senior monastic officials, with private apart-. Archeology provides new evidence for the diagnosis and treatment of the sick in medieval monastic infirmaries and hospitals.
There is increasing archaeological evidence of the use of herbal medicine in the treatment of patients. In the later fourteenth century, a possible apothecary was built to the east of the canonical dispensary. These coins were ceremoniously distributed by the king to those suffering from the skin disease scrofula, known as the "King's Evil".
At the hospital of St Mary Spital, the superior accommodation for the canons suggests that greater social value was placed on their spiritual service to the sick, over and above the practical vocation of the lay sisters. If these workshops were pharmaceutical, their spatial location suggests that the medicine may have been intended for the treatment of the canons rather than the sick poor.
THE MATERIALITY OF MAGIC
THE RITUAL LIVES OF PEOPLE AND THINGS
The term "occult" in a medieval context simply meant "hidden from view" and did not carry any of the connotations of the supernatural or paranormal that it does today. It has been suggested that the flint carried a symbolic association of the ocean and the mountains. The use of sacred names for healing and protection is part of the folk tradition of text amulets and charms.
The dedications are distinctive in the very strong representation of the names of Jesus, including the IHS, IHC and Jesus Nazarene inscriptions. At Whithorn (Dumfries and Galloway) the Northumbrian minister's church was 'consecrated' in the ninth century (c. AD 835). If the decision was made to replace a shrine or reliquary, care was needed in the disposal of the redundant object.
How was the soul in purgatory affected by the condition of the corpse in the grave. A high proportion of the textiles and objects placed with the medieval dead have perished in the ground. Four graves at The Hirsel were associated with quartz stones: one located south-west of the church contained five quartz stones and a coin.
In Hirsl, an iron object was placed between the teeth of an individual buried north of the church (Cramp 2014: 103). The orientation of this group of burials is consistent with the 12th century phase of the church (Cormack 1995: 38). Scissors were the most common female symbol in the Middle Ages, believed to represent a woman's role as the caretaker of the house.
In the East Kirk of St Nicholas Aberdeen, child burials were placed in a radiant arrangement around the outside of the apse in the eleventh or twelfth century (Cameron and Stones 2016:82). All three rituals involved deliberate acts of the body according to established norms, ranging from the use of amulets to the deliberate burial or laying of objects in a sacred space, and the placement of objects with the medieval dead. Chronological patterns are also apparent, with greater diversity in burial practices in the early part of the period under consideration, the eleventh to twelfth centuries.
Even popular sources of natural magic, such as the lapidaries, make no mention of the use of materials such as jet or quartz in connection with the dead (Kornbluth 2016:157). Silence indicates that these were illegal magical practices that escaped the attention of the church.