In this configuration, the weight of the vehicle creates a restoring moment to add stability to the vehicle. The long stroke of the piston (forward or backward) ensures the necessary variation of the bladder volume for maneuverability .
In Proceedings of the 2nd IEEE International Workshop on Metrology in Space (MetroAeroSpace 2015), Benevento, Italy, 4–5 June 2015; p. In Proceedings of the 2010 IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation (ICRA), Anchorage, AK, USA, 4–8 May 2010;.
Estimation of Wave Characteristics Based on Global Navigation Satellite System Data Installed on
- The Experimental Sailboat ECO40
- Concluding Remarks
To obtain the estimation of the pitch signal but the roll component, a mean signal (i.e. the actual pitch) can be calculated (see section 4). It is based on the combined approach of Kin-VADASE and Moving Base Kinematic techniques.
The AMERIGO Lander and the Automatic Benthic Chamber (CBA): Two New Instruments to Measure
Amerigo Lander and Automatic Benthic Chamber: Technical Speciﬁcations and Equipment
(c) recovery mast with two buoys and three locating devices; and (d) a schematic drawing of the Amerigo Lander during seabed deployment. After completing the measurement and sampling operations, the lander returns to the surface autonomously. OxyStat Oxygen Replacement Device. a) Pump and pipe connected to the interior of the room; (b) top view.
Restoring the oxygen level to a predetermined threshold causes the pump to turn off. The minimum and maximum oxygen concentration can be set by the lander software before the mission or calculated from the initial concentration measured in the chamber. The rotary vane motors are also activated by the lander software a few minutes after the cover is closed.
The power supply of the CBA consists of three battery packs (NI-MH size D, 12 V, 8 Ah, Torricella SRL, Milano, Italy) housed in cylindrical Delrin containers (Figure 14).
Benthic Flux Calculation
The housings that house the electronics, batteries and motors that drive VAMPIRE and the mixing vane are made of Delrin and are built to withstand hydrostatic pressure to a depth of approximately 200m. In addition, in the CBA, the VAMPIRE engine and electronics housing are pressure compensated with a silicone tube system filled with a non-conductive fluid (simple petroleum jelly) that provides resistance to high water pressures. In terms of CBA operation design, the syringe sampling time is set by programming the electronics, while the probe measurement time is programmed by the probe software itself.
The CBA, both in a stand-alone configuration and integrated into the Amerigo Lander, is a low-cost device that does not require divers or connecting cables to the support ship, thus saving the high cost of divers and the technical difficulties caused by the connecting cable. Further savings are made possible by the fact that the electronics and batteries are commercially available, so the costs are low. Like the Amerigo Lander, the CBA has an operating temperature limit that coincides with the lowest operating value of the sensors installed in the benthic chamber and polycarbonate, which is 50 °C (Hydrolab MS5 Multiprobe).
If this does not happen, there are three possible explanations, as follows: The benthic chamber is not well placed on the bottom, there are leaks, or an irrigation process is underway in the bottom sediment.
In particular, oxygen sensors can monitor oxygen concentrations in chambers, oxygen fluxes at the sediment-water interface can be calculated, and the oxygen trend can be used to verify benthic chamber closure. The trends of oxygen concentrations recorded in the CBA and in the two benthic chambers of the Amerigo Lander (BC1 and BC3) are shown in Figure 18. The data refer to the same time and station, on the pelite soil sediment before the mouth of the river Po.
In particular, the two peaks in the oxygen concentration trend in the lander's Ox1 chamber show that the lid opened twice. In Figure 18b, the oxygen concentrations were multiplied by the height of the benthic chambers, calculated by the dilution of the Cs tracer (4). Oxygen flux was then obtained by the slope of the regression line between time (days) and concentration (µmol/m2) (black line, Figure 18b).
The fluxes calculated by the slope of the regression line are shown in Figure 19 and Table 2.
Early diagenesis processes and benthic fluxes in different depositional environments of the Northern and Central Adriatic Sea. Early carbon and nutrient diagenesis in Manfredonia Bay sediments (Southern Adriatic Sea). Biogeochemical processes in the sediments of Manfredonia Bay (Southern Adriatic Sea): Early carbon and nutrient diagenesis and benthic exchange.Biogeosci.
Benthic biogeochemistry: Advanced technologies and guidelines for the future of in situ surveying.J. Diagenesis of carbon and nutrients and benthic exchange in sediments of the Northern Adriatic Sea.Mar. Benthic fluxes and pore water studies of sediments of the central equatorial north Pacific: Nutrient diagenesis.
Biogeochemistry, grain size and mineralogy of sediments of the central and southern Adriatic: a review. Chem.
Towards Non-Invasive Methods to Assess Population Structure and Biomass in Vulnerable Sea Pen Fields †
Materials and Methods
The following biometric parameters were measured for each colony: stem length, total colony length (taking into account both the rachis and stem), fresh weight, and number of polyp leaves (Figure 1). Measurements were performed in the laboratory after thawing, as the freezing process causes the complete contraction of the colonies. Finally, data obtained from an ROV survey conducted on the same population sampled by trawling  was used to compare the distribution of the number of polyp leaves obtained by both methods (i.e., visual vs. sampling).
In particular, polyp sheets were counted for a total of 207 colonies observed in vivo, whose position, contraction, and ROV frame allowed the polyp sheets of at least one side of the colony to be clearly distinguished. Although not very common, the number of polyp leaves on both sides of the same colony may vary due to mechanical damage or predation events. When the number of leaves on both sides of the same colony was different, the mean value was calculated and used for the models.
Whereas, the maximum number of polyp leaves per colony side was preferred over the average value for the size estimation model, considering the direct relationship between the length of the colony and the number of polyp leaves.
Results and Discussion
In the first step, the relationship between rachis length and the number of polyp leaves was investigated. Figure 2 shows a significant variation in colony length for each value of the number of polyp leaves; therefore, the spread of data obtained was analyzed. Similar linear dependence was obtained by analyzing the behavior of the total length estimate ˆltas a function of the number of polyp leaves, reported in equation (4), with an obtained root mean relative error of 10.6%.
The large or small variation in rachis length for each polyp leaf number value may be due to the natural variability of the population and the number of colonies sampled. Despite a large number of samples analyzed (168 colonies), it is expected that the spindle length variation between the different polyp number values would be more homogeneous by analyzing a larger number of colonies. The distributions of the number of polyp leaves in both sets are compared in Figure 8, while descriptive statistics are reported in Table 1.
Using the previously identified relationship between the number of polyp leaves and fresh weight of the colonies, an estimate of the total weight can be obtained from ROV images.
The funders had no role in the design of the study; in the collection, analysis or interpretation of data; when writing the manuscript or when deciding to publish the results. In Proceedings of the 16th IMEKO TC-4 International Symposium and 13th ADC Modeling and Testing Workshop, Florence, Italy, 22–24 September 2008; p. In Proceedings of the 2018 IEEE International Workshop on Metrology for the Sea, Learning to Measure Marine Health Parameters (MetroSea), Bari, Italy, 8–10 October 2018;.
In Proceedings of the 2018 IEEE International Workshop on Metrology for the Sea, Learning to Measure Sea Health Parameters (MetroSea), Bari, Italy, 8–10 October 2018; page Effects of fishing gear and ecology of the sea whip (Halipteris willemoesi (Cnidaria: Octocorallia: Pennatulacea)) in British Columbia, Canada: Preliminary observations. Aquat. Spatial distribution patterns of the soft corals Alcyonium acaule and Alcyonium palmatumin coastal bottoms (Cap de Creus, northwestern Mediterranean Sea). Mar.
Growth and population dynamics of the non-native speciesBranchiomma luctuosumGrube (Annelida, Sabellidae) in the Ionian Sea (Mediterranean Sea).Mar.
Application of Hyperspectral Imaging to Underwater Habitat Mapping, Southern Adriatic Sea
Materials and Methods 1. Study Area
The spatial resolution provided by hyperspectral cameras varies with altitude, camera exposure time and vessel speed. In February 2017, we conducted the SPECTRA17 cruise aboard the R/V Minerva Uno, which aimed to test the ability of the UHI to acquire seabed hyperspectral imagery in the Southern Adriatic Sea. Geographic position and spatial correction of the hyperspectral images were provided by the georeferencing procedure by Immersion software using: (1) USBL data for the ROV position and (2) elevation data from the Ecotone IMU (Inertial Measurement Unit).
The SAM only compares the angle between the spectral directions of reference and test pixels considered, there is no specific requirement for a large amount of training samples . For colonial cnidarian, bedrock, and sponge, we selected multiple ROIs due to the differences in the UHI RGB colors along the segment. We generated a confusion matrix for both test sites using ENVI and ArcGIS desktop to determine the accuracy of the classification results.
User accuracy (UA) is the number of pixels correctly identified in a class divided by the total number of pixels of the class in the classified image; indicates false positives, where pixels are misclassified as a known class when they should have been classified as something else.
For the sand class, the UA is extremely low (25%) due to the high number of false positives. However, the method was insufficient to distinguish between mud and bedrock substrates, probably characterized here by similar spectra, which hinders a reliable mapping of the seabed (Figure 4B). This first application of the UHI camera in the Mediterranean Sea (Southern Adriatic Sea) confirmed its potential for underwater habitat mapping in shallow and deep water.
We noted that the quality of the positioning system, the illumination settings, and the complexity of the seabed affected the UHI performance and the hyperspectral image analysis. Benthic habitat mapping: A review of progress towards improved understanding of seafloor spatial ecology using acoustic techniques. Estuary. First hyperspectral imaging survey of the deep ocean floor: High-resolution mapping of manganese nodules. Remote Sens.
Status of deep-sea coral and sponge ecosystems in the Gulf of Mexico region: Texas to the Straits of Florida.