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Society for Assembly, Handling and

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Nguyễn Gia Hào

Academic year: 2023

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For this purpose, assembly scopes are created in a standardized platform and transferred to the virtual environment. Regarding the validation of possible assembly and disassembly sequences, various VR applications can be found.

3 Concept for the creation and validation of assembly sequences

Nevertheless, cognitive support systems for the rework are so far the subject of research and hardly available on the market.

4 Implementation of the environment for the creation and validation of the assembly sequences and transfer of the work

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  • Scope of functions within the Virtual Environment
  • Development and setup of a planning tool for the creation of graph-based assembly sequences
  • Data Transfer between Virtual Environment and SGT-Platform
  • Transferring the routing to rework

The virtual environment offers the possibility to visualize and validate and edit the scope of the assembly. The 3D model of the product you wish to view (.obj file) as well as the states of the product defined initially within the SGT platform.

Fig. 2 Functionalities of the Virtual Environment - (a) Menu, (b) Teleport, (c) Visual- Visual-ization of assembly scopes, (d) Editing process
Fig. 2 Functionalities of the Virtual Environment - (a) Menu, (b) Teleport, (c) Visual- Visual-ization of assembly scopes, (d) Editing process

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The associated compilation volumes are exported from the SGT platform based on the standardized exchange format JSON. To visualize all the reasonably defined scopes in the SGT platform, each path is exported as a linear list.

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Different options for (dis)assembly of the product result in a branched presentation of product states within the SGT platform. Once all the lists have been checked, the algorithm will scan all the .csv files and extract the changes.

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In the first step, the employee enters the error code into the assistance system via the co-worker routing system (see Figure 5). The required repair plan is then issued via database query. The graph structure is set with the available data and available to the control program for operational performance.

5 Conclusion and Outlook

For example, the shortest path from the product state to the target state can be output with a query. Step by step, individual processes are validated and returned to the graph-based planning system as feasible or infeasible.

Acknowledgment

In the future, data from the processing area should be able to be returned. This would enable standardized reporting of optimization potentials discovered in processing and transparent implementation in processing.

Images or other third-party material in this chapter are covered by the chapter's Creative Commons license unless otherwise noted in the credit line for the material. If the material is not covered by a Creative Commons Chapter license and your intended use is not permitted by law or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder.

Intuitive, VR- and Gesture-based Physical Interaction with Virtual Commissioning Simulation Models

1 Introduction

2 State of the Art

Related work

Research Gap and Contribution

Current research in the field of human integration in VC systems mainly focuses on realistic first-person visualization of the simulated system. Other contributions map the operator's hands through motion capture systems, finding that this increases the intuitiveness of the interaction [10, 11].

Table 1. Evaluation of human-integrated VC approaches
Table 1. Evaluation of human-integrated VC approaches

3 System Concept

4 Implementation and Results

System Setup

The HMD tracking data is transmitted to Workstation 1 via the same protocol, where a virtual LM sensor is placed accordingly in the simulation. The hand tracking data of the right index finger is then used to design a pointer in the WinCC environment, allowing interaction with the virtual touch screen.

Fig.  1.  Hardware  experiment  setup  including  the  virtual  WinCC  HMI  (1),  MCD  simulation  environment (2), VR visualization (3) and a HTC Vive® HMD with mounted Leap Motion®
Fig. 1. Hardware experiment setup including the virtual WinCC HMI (1), MCD simulation environment (2), VR visualization (3) and a HTC Vive® HMD with mounted Leap Motion®

Evaluation Use-Case

User Study

Lemmerz K, Glogowski P, Hypki A et al. 2018) Functional Integration of a Robotics Software Framework in a Human Simulation System. Metzner M, Bönig J, Blank A et al. 2018) “Human-In-The-Loop” – Virtual commissioning of human-robot collaboration systems.

Fig. 5. Frequency of intuitiveness ratings in the user study comparing the common KM setup  with the proposed VR-integrated approach
Fig. 5. Frequency of intuitiveness ratings in the user study comparing the common KM setup with the proposed VR-integrated approach

Accuracy of Marker Tracking on an Optical See- Through Head Mounted Display

Investigation of the accuracy that can be achieved with this setup (comparing monovision to stereovision). Next, in Chapter 3, the methods used to perform the accuracy assessment are described.

2 Related Work

One of the two scenarios we evaluate uses marker tracking based on the RGB HoloLens camera. Our own preliminary experiments have shown that the display's depth perception can be quite misleading.

3 Method

Marker Tracking Integration

After some time, line of sight is expected to be re-established and marker tracking can resume following the current marker position. We propose a method where first tracking the marker determines the position of the object relative to the HoloLens camera.

Calibration procedure

This modification has the advantage of allowing a larger working space beyond arm's length and the ability to more easily assess the correct alignment of the cubes, as it does not rely on the depth perception of the screen, which can be very misleading in our experience.

Evaluation Concept

4 Evaluation

Results

Discussion

5 Conclusion

By using the known pose of the camera (e.g. in [3] a robot manipulator was used) two B-Rep models can be merged. 2. Classes of the implemented data model (left), typical view of the experiment (middle) and matching environmental model including predicted trajectory as circles on the floor (right).

Fig. 1: Examples for holes with differ- differ-ent oridiffer-entation and differdiffer-ent  cardinal-ity k
Fig. 1: Examples for holes with differ- differ-ent oridiffer-entation and differdiffer-ent cardinal-ity k

1 Introduction

In this case, it must be ensured that the process requirements are met and that collisions of the robot with the environment or with itself are avoided. For all reachable points it must be checked that there are no collisions of the robot with itself or its surroundings.

2 State of the art

Despite the use of the CAD/CAM chain, in practice several iterations of robot programming are required. This allows the path planning to be adapted to component deviations from the target geometry and deviations in orientation and position.

3 Methodology

Problem Formulation

The disadvantage of using point clouds is that they do not provide a volumetric representation of the environment. If the resolution of a point cloud is reduced too much, the distances between points can become so large that collisions between them cannot be detected.

Resolution areas

Multimap parameterization is done by the user based on the task and robot configuration. Also, the physical dimensions of the robot and especially the end effect must be considered.

Multimap Generation

The size of the end effector must also be taken into account when defining the size of the areas. For the number and size of the regions as well as the maximum voxel size, the computational efficiency and the resulting movement limitation for the robot must be considered.

4 Experiments

Reduction of voxels

In Octomap, all resolutions are included and take up memory space, even if they are never used.

Planning times

This includes reading the binary file, creating the multimap and converting it into a Matlab compatible format. Importing the Octomap takes the most time, therefore the time difference between importing the Octomap and the Multimap is only between 0.05481s and 0.0954s.

5 Conclusion

Weseler, P., Kaiser, B., Vrugt, J.t., Lechler, A., Verl, A.: Camera-based path planning for low-volume - high-variance manufacturing with industrial robots. In: Camera-Based Path Planning for Low-Volume Manufacturing with Industrial Robots, p.

Towards Embedded Force Sensors in Exoskeletons for Evaluating Interaction Forces in Interfaces

The implementation of force sensors in exoskeletons interfaces can help to perform multi-criteria evaluation of exoskeletons using only one tool. This may improve human-machine interaction and the adoption of exoskeletons equipped with force sensors.

2 Interface Prototype with Embedded Pressure Sensors

Construction

The constructive basis of the interface prototype is a milled rectangular aluminum plate with the dimensions of 100 x 60 x 10 mm, which represents the exoskeletal interface. This connection is sealed with an O-ring on the outer diameter of the metal shell of each sensor [17].

Calibration of the Pressure Sensors

After curing, each capsule is placed under the corresponding transfixation of the interface and clamped by another milled aluminum plate with four mounting screws respectively. The capsule is then filled with water, vented and sealed with the pressure sensor by fixing the cross bar screws.

3 Experiments

General Test Set-Up

In reality, the supporting force of an exoskeleton affects the human soft tissue through the interfaces, where the interface distributes the force as surface pressure to the contact area on the body. Fig.2: Derivation of the general test setup and scenarios from real exoskeletal applications on the example of the upper arm.

Test Scenarios

In test scenario D “Repeated variable load”, the ability of the prototype to measure different repeated loads is evaluated. Shear forces can be an indication of a poor fit and consequently lead to rejection of the exoskeleton.

4 Results

Test scenario E "Variable shear forces" evaluates the prototype's ability to estimate shear forces during movement, which can cause friction and even lead to skin abrasions. A shaped metal bar prevents any rotation of the interface to focus only on the impact of horizontal movements of the interface at each capsule pressure.

Fig. 3: Results of the different test scenarios. The abscissa shows the passage of time  and the ordinate the inner pressure in the capsules measured by the pressure sensors
Fig. 3: Results of the different test scenarios. The abscissa shows the passage of time and the ordinate the inner pressure in the capsules measured by the pressure sensors

5 Discussion

However, pending a mechanical load test of the interface prototype, the loads are limited to a total of 5.9 N for safety reasons. The planar form of the interface prototype and the tissue model are also abstract and recognize curvatures and uneven surface textures in reality for both.

6 Conclusion

First, the human tissue model used in the above study is quite stable, which is not always the case when working with human subjects due to factors such as different tissue and bone structures. Open Access This chapter is licensed under the terms of the Creative Commons Use, Sharing, Adaptation, Distribution, and Reproduction License in any medium or format, as long as you give proper credit to the original author(s) and source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate whether changes have been made.

Related work

The relevant influences on the geometric design of such joints in terms of their ability to move along the major and minor axes have hardly been investigated. In addition, by varying certain design parameters, their influence on the required process forces, the unwanted deformation along certain axes (hereafter called parasitic axes) and the influence of these parameters on each other will be investigated.

Materials and methods

The maximum allowable stresses within the components are never allowed to exceed a certain value, so that joint deformation is fully reversible at all times. The simulation of joints in ANSYS should be performed under conditions typical for a cryogenic working environment, taking into account the changed material properties of the joint material at temperatures below -130 °C.

2 Prototype geometry

Simulations of the prototype geometry

This is made possible by the fact that the bending angle to be achieved for the entire joint is divided between the 16 serially connected thin parts of the joint. In Fig. 3 b) sections 1 and 2 show the strongest local deformation in positional deviation along the parasitic axes under a tensile load.

3 Development of the joint geometry

Simulation of the joint geometry

The basic geometry of the bending hinge based on the Fowler model [4] is made with solid works. The skewness, which should not exceed 0.5, was considered a measure of the quality of the mesh.

4 Graphical evaluation of the results

Analogous conclusions result for the wing length and radius of the corner ferries in decreasing importance. Analogous to this procedure, six subclasses are formed for the wing length, and then the target values ​​are displayed as a function of the radius of the corner ferries.

5 Analysis of the results

The simulated feature carriers are first divided into six classes, sorted according to the cross-section thickness and then the target values ​​are displayed as a function of the wing shortening. It appears that the decrease in wing length and the increase of the angular swings both have a positive influence on the maximum stresses.

6 Conclusion and outlook

7 Acknowledgements

PARAMETER INCREASE / DECREASE IN %

Lobontiu, N., Paine, J.S.N.: Design of circular cross-section corner-filtered bending hinges for three-dimensional compliant mechanisms. Lobontiu, N., Paine, J.S., Garcia, E., Goldfarb, M.: Design of symmetrical conical bending hinges based on closed-form conformance equations.

In addition to combining flange patterns, the adapter plate also offers the ability to change the offset position of the end effector on the robotic system. As part of the ROBOTOP research project, the production of the adapter plate should be automated.

2 Flange patterns

Within the framework of this research project, the mechanical interfaces between the end effectors and the robot arms are considered. A look at the five largest manufacturers (SCHUNK, Schmalz, Destaco, Festo and FeRobotic) shows that only 21% of end effectors comply with the standard.

3 Automated adapter plate generation

Design specification for the generation of adapter plates

Depending on the arrangement, the location and diameter of the holes must be specified (B, T, A). Finally, the type (V) and positioning (P) of the necessary energy and information interfaces must be defined.

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Generation of geometric flanges using constructive solid geometry

Simulation frameworks have their means of storing the information necessary to represent the properties of all scenario entities—the simulation state—in their database. These things – the digital twins that represent assets, the software services and the MMS – are the hubs of the IoT.

Fig. 4. Image of the geometry specified by the XML document depicted in Fig. 3.
Fig. 4. Image of the geometry specified by the XML document depicted in Fig. 3.

2 Planning Approaches

3 Internet-based Configuration Process

Fields of Application for Best Practice Acquisition

Because optical sensor systems are often used for this, this work has been assigned to the. In addition to handling and inspecting components, robots are increasingly being used in industry for coating and machining processes (particularly cutting).

Best Practice Database

However, a central requirement of the web platform is to contain representative best practices that allow inexperienced users in SMEs an easy introduction to the field of robotics.

Selection of Best Practices

4 Application

In this way, the user can choose between several manufacturers and choose the right type of object. Due to the 3D environment and clearly defined input queries, no in-depth knowledge of robotics is required, so almost every industrial end user can benefit from the web platform.

Fig. 3. Preselection of best practices on the ROBOTOP web platform
Fig. 3. Preselection of best practices on the ROBOTOP web platform

5 Conclusion and outlook

This is certainly a barrier to entry for the use of industrial robot applications for SMEs. In addition, the platform's extensive help functions and detailed 3D view enable even inexperienced users to go through the entire planning process without additional help.

Resulting Effects for Tasks at and above Head Level Us- ing Exoskeletons

Not least because the mechanical stress caused by the nature of the work task, such as working at head height or higher, or handling heavy loads, can lead to fatigue and chronic complaints among the staff (musculoskeletal disorders) [13]. According to the manual of the d2-R Attention and Concentration Test, this psychometric test presents itself as valid and reliable.

2 Study design

  • Exoskeleton Lucy
  • Experimental setup
  • Observed variables
  • Statistical Analysis

An Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) method was used to assess the effects of Lucy for both factors. An ANOVA was calculated for each of the three d2-R dependent variables (KL, BZO, F) and one for errors occurring during the work task (ErrorWT).

Figure 2. Exoskeleton Lucy for support tasks at head level and/or above.
Figure 2. Exoskeleton Lucy for support tasks at head level and/or above.

3 Results

The manual for the d2-R test did not provide more detailed information about the standardized period. Summary of the interaction effects (supported, unsupported x group 1, group 2) of the analysis of variance (support x work order).

Table 3. Summary of the interaction effects (supported, unsupported x Group 1, Group  2) of the Analysis of Variances (Support x Working Order)
Table 3. Summary of the interaction effects (supported, unsupported x Group 1, Group 2) of the Analysis of Variances (Support x Working Order)

4 Discussion

A large number of further studies on this topic are needed in order to achieve an optimal match between user and technical support systems in the future. Nevertheless, the results show that the use of technical support systems can be considered in the industrial sector as a whole, in terms of concentration levels and error avoidance.

Acknowledgements

Psychological research can also play a greater role in the development and evaluation of exoskeletons, underscoring the importance of interdisciplinary approaches. However, errors in the work process can never be completely avoided in practice, and physically demanding tasks and occupations, such as those in the scaffolding industry, are likely to remain unchanged in the future.

Industrial Data Science - Interdisciplinary Competence for Machine Learning in Industrial Production

Therefore, methodological competence in the field of ML is required, as well as a good technical understanding of practical engineering questions [5]. This intersection of computer science, statistics, and engineering constitutes the field of Industrial Data Science (IDS).

2 State of the Art

Machine Learning in Production

Machine learning (ML) as an interdisciplinary subject of computer science and statistics enables the intelligent and automated processing of large amounts of data by discovering non-trivial but still unknown structures and correlations [3]. 5] Therefore, the research project "InDaS", funded by the Federal Ministry of Education and Research in the program "Qualification programs and research initiatives in the field of machine learning", focuses on the development and validation of a comprehensive and interdisciplinary qualification concept of methodical competences in the field of machine learning with practical application in industrial production.

Educational Concepts

In addition, the consideration of data management and the processing of real use cases is only incidentally part of the seminars.

3 Concept and Development

  • Qualification Requirements for Industrial Data Science
  • Conception of interdisciplinary competence development
  • Development of Methodological Competence
  • Transfer to Practical Applications

The concept for the qualification and development of Industrial Data Science competencies as part of the "InDaS" research project [5]. Therefore, the second part of the qualification concept consists in the practical processing of industrial case studies in interdisciplinary work groups.

Fig. 1. Concept for qualification and competence development of Industrial Data Science as  part of the research project “InDaS” [5]
Fig. 1. Concept for qualification and competence development of Industrial Data Science as part of the research project “InDaS” [5]

4 Concept Evaluation

Case studies of the IDS 2019 practical seminar at the TU Dortmund University After a general presentation of use cases with the support of industrial process experts, the project takes the form of a three-month self-organized, independent group work with regular scientific supervision of industrial and methodological experts.

5 Conclusion and Outlook

Hampe, "Potential and Use of Big Data: Results of a Representative Survey of Companies in Germany" (in German) in Hg. Tiwari, "Data mining in manufacturing: A review based on the kind of knowledge" in Journal of Intelligent Manufacturing, vol.

By flame cutting, the tube of the branch element is prepared for the joining process. The conventional fabrication of pipe joints does not consider the real geometries of the main element pipe during weld seam preparation.

Fig. 1. Jacket structure (left), tubular connection (right) [1]
Fig. 1. Jacket structure (left), tubular connection (right) [1]

2 Description of the developed process

  • Test setup
  • Digitization of the pipes
  • Weld seam preparation
  • Offline programming and Preparation for flame cutting

The design configuration is now virtually simulated with point clouds of main and boom tubes. In the case of an oblique groove, the inner contour of the branch pipe touches.

Fig. 4. Process steps for cutting with robots
Fig. 4. Process steps for cutting with robots

3 Verification and Results

The robot software interpolates between position and direction data and calculates axis positions to avoid singularity positions. The manufacturing deviations for the attachment tube are clearly visible in the left measurement.

4 Conclusion and outlook

Visibility: Information required to make a decision is readily available, including the relevant states of the robot. The graphical programming environment SCRATCH [17] visualizes the assembly environment abstraction of the RP-I3 framework as shown in Figure 3b.

Table 1: Flexible manufacturing examples, which may require on-/offline changes to the robot program
Table 1: Flexible manufacturing examples, which may require on-/offline changes to the robot program

Playback Programming System

Our contribution is the process of how an interface to an intuitive robot programming system controlled with a touch screen can be designed. At the beginning, we describe our iterative three-step design process consisting of analysis, design and evaluation, where the changes to the existing robot programming system are shown.

2 Related Work

Then we show the application of the design process using the example of playback robot programming. With the next sections, we want to fill this gap by introducing our design process for robot programming user interfaces.

3 Design Process for Robot Programming Systems

  • Analysis
  • Design
  • Evaluation
  • Summary

Here, the implementation of the design aims to develop an intuitively operable interface. The research object of the robot programming interface is to develop an interface that improves intuitiveness.

4 Example: A Playback Programming System

First Iteration

The prototypes here will be evaluated with methods that measure the intuitiveness of the interface. In the paper prototype, a part of the robot program along the timeline can be marked by touching it with the finger and moving the finger along the recorded timeline.

Fig. 2. Design of the paper proto- proto-type.
Fig. 2. Design of the paper proto- proto-type.

Second Iteration

Schematic presentation of the three tasks that the participants in the user survey had to perform. Evaluation During the second iteration of the design process, we conducted a user survey according to [19].

Fig. 3. Design of the interactive virtual mockup.
Fig. 3. Design of the interactive virtual mockup.

5 Evaluation Outcomes

Evaluation with Usability Experts

Evaluation with Domain Experts

Overall, the three scores evaluated, namely the effectiveness, the efficiency and the satisfaction, show that with the aid of the design process, the playback programming system interface has been improved and is usable by non-experts working in assembly and construction domains.

6 Conclusion

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Fig.  1  Central  characteristics  of  the  virtual  environment,  standardized  graph  tool  (SGT) and assistance system
Fig. 2 Functionalities of the Virtual Environment - (a) Menu, (b) Teleport, (c) Visual- Visual-ization of assembly scopes, (d) Editing process
Fig. 4 Information flow between virtual environment, SGT and subsequent systems  (e.g
Fig. 3. Tracking and visualization of the user’s hands; a) skeletal representation in MCD and  virtual LM sensor, b) combined visualization in VR, c) HMI touch functionality through VNC
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