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Successful Event Management, Third Edition

Nguyễn Gia Hào

Academic year: 2023

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Although the publisher has taken all reasonable care in the preparation of this book, the publisher makes no representation, express or implied, as to the accuracy of the information contained in this book and cannot accept any legal responsibility or liability for any errors or omissions from the book or the consequences thereof. Size and scope of the event market 23 Determinants and motivations 28 The demand structure for events 34 Summary and references 37.


More importantly, in terms of market demand, once this focus is made on an event, the market for the. Audience The group of people who watch an event or (usually) passively participate in some aspect of the event activities.




Therefore, we can understand that particular events were often historically decisive for the social structure of everyday life. Such a calculation is problematic because the range of events is staggering, from major international sporting spectacles such as the Olympics, to the family naming ceremony of the new baby in the neighboring country.


All we can possibly reasonably say is that we can look at any event in isolation and see what value it generates. Therefore, overlaps must be seen as inevitable rather than exceptional, and any attempt to categorize an event, even by analyzing its aims, its organizers or its origins, will have to take this into account, even if we can agree that a particular event does fall into such and such a category.

Categories and typologies

In order to quantify the complexity, varying levels of organizational complexity have been used in the typology in Figure 1.2, ranging from Using this typology, it is possible to propose a classification of different events, in order to understand the comparative demands that such events may place on organizers or event managers.

Historical contexts and precedents

One of the most important aspects of the games was the truce that existed to allow them to take place and to enable the participants, mainly nobles and professional athletes, along with pilgrims (who were traveling to the temple of Zeus at Olympia ). , to go to safe games. The games lasted for five days and included various religious ceremonies, the main religious aspect being the worship of Zeus, although the women had their own games in honor of the goddess Hera (married women were not allowed in the men's games, even. to watch).

CASE STUDY 1 Leisure/sporting events: the Olympic Games

Of all these, weddings can be one of the most complicated to organise, involving friends and family and a range of related service activities, from food to entertainment, as well as the formal aspect of the wedding ceremony itself. As with modern weddings, Roman weddings were organized by the families of the bride and groom.

CASE STUDY 2 Personal events: a Roman wedding

This was the Roman equivalent of writing obscene messages on the couple's car with foam, and often referred to how "well equipped" the donkey was. They began with the Queen traveling along the River Thames to possess the Tower of London, accompanied by her guard ("retired gentlemen"), the royal court, the Mayor of London and many others, including several bands of musicians. in a fleet of barges, boats and other watercraft.

CASE STUDY 3 Cultural events: the coronation of Elizabeth I

A celebration of this size will be a challenge for even a modern event manager; at Elizabeth's coronation it was the responsibility of the Lord Chamberlain and the Treasurer of. The Paris Exhibition of 1889 was the idea of ​​the then French Prime Minister, Jules Ferry.

CASE STUDY 4 Organizational events: the Paris Exposition

When the event was planned, a member of the French cabinet, Edouard Lockroy, proposed a thousand-foot tower to emphasize its importance. One of the first major international industrial exhibitions was the Great Exhibition of London in 1851 (there were earlier ones, such as the one in Paris in 1849) The Great Exhibition of London was held in a specially built hall, the Crystal Palace, which held around 13,000 exhibitors hosted from around the world.

Characteristics of events

Of all the characteristics of the event, the ambience is one of the most important to the result. The same applies to guests at a Christmas party: the guests themselves interact with each other, with the hosts and perhaps with the entertainers, which creates the atmosphere and contributes to how enjoyable the event is.

The example of the coronation of Elizabeth I shows that although the event lasted several days, it was composed of several shorter activities of varying lengths, with intermissions depending on what was going on and why. Some events, such as a birthday party, may take longer than planned because 'it just happened', other events may even be scheduled to be extended, for a special reason, e.g. to recover costs or to meet additional demand, or of course they may be cut back due to lack of interest.


However, many of these general demand factors are not obvious to individual event organizers, who are likely more interested in the individual motivations of attendees and visitors to ensure the success of their event. Similar aspects of demand may be at work in the event business – who knows how successful an event could be if demand was hidden or latent.

Size and scope of the events market

A study of the economic impact of the various festivals taking place in Edinburgh was undertaken in 2005 by SQW Economic Development Consultants and TNS Travel and Tourism. It is also important that contact has been made with the organizers of the festivals to obtain details of spending and income.

CASE STUDY 5 The size and scope of events: the economic impact study of Edinburgh’s festivals

2 What key elements of information can help us build a picture of the events business and how can this data be collected and by whom. In an attempt to quantify the size and scope of the UK wedding market, Mintel observes that there is significant regional, cultural and socio-economic variation in what a wedding costs.

CASE STUDY 6 Estimating market size and scope of events

The wedding market is one of a number of discrete sectors of the event industry, and is also one of the few where there is some assessment of its size and scope. Both Mintel and Keynote (market research companies) do reports on the UK wedding market as well as a host of other industry and sector reports on everything from the size of the hotel market to the size of lingerie.

The vast majority of event business elements do not have available estimates of demand, revenue, expenditure or impact. This approach, of taking one element (and recognizing it as part of a much larger whole), can be a more useful means of gaining an impression of the business purpose of events.

Determinants and motivations

The same applies to the commercial field (contrary to some views on the effect of technology on commercial enterprises), and the demand for commercial events, such as conferences, exhibitions, product launches, etc., continues to increase. In terms of the primary and secondary motives described above, the satisfaction of needs can vary significantly from event to event.

FIGURE 2.1  Assessing market scope and the economics impacts of events
FIGURE 2.1 Assessing market scope and the economics impacts of events

CASE STUDY 7 Motives for attending events

The 50th Berlin Film Festival took place between 9 and 20 February 2000 in numerous venues and cinemas across Berlin, many of which, including the Berlinale Palast, Cinemax and the Sony complex, were newly opened as part of a major redevelopment of the city , which took place in the 1990s, especially around Potsdamer Platz, where most of the festival activities take place. Later that year, France responded by establishing the Cannes International Film Festival, although politics made a more dramatic intervention when the newcomer lasted just one day - the day World War II broke out.

About 240 films were shown on 12 days of the year 2000 festival, not only feature films, but also documentaries and short films. The festival doesn't just deal with the mainstream of filmmaking; there are fringe activities, including the "Panorama" section, which previews next season's films in advance; the Kinderfi lmfest (children's film festival);

The structure of demand for events

As a result, there can be various reasons why an event may not attract as many people as the organizers expect. On the other hand, the market estimate for the event could be based on what is known only.

CASE STUDY 8 The event ‘Umbrella’: North Sea Jazz Festival

The event's target market consists of people from all age groups, with the key age group of jazz lovers being 35-55. 2 What are the marketing benefits of the main festival in Ahoy having three days of free evening concerts in the city open to the public.


Many of the visitors stay in the city's hotels and guest houses, for which this is a peak period. 1 What could be the primary and secondary motives for a jazz enthusiast attending this event or a family attending one of the summer evening outdoor concerts.


This is mainly due to the fragmented nature of the activities that make up the enormous breadth and scope of this company. Unlike many industries, the events industry is not driven solely by the need to make money.


These companies have long existed as part of the tourism and hospitality industry, but event management as an independent segment is now seen as commonplace. The scale of these services can be quite surprising at first, but think about all the activities involved in a carnival and the potential for complexity in supporting the larger events sector becomes more apparent.

Governmental support infrastructure, industry associations and professional bodies

As the events sector has evolved, levels of specialization and technical requirements have increased due to greater expectations from organizers and attendees, leading to the rapid development of event-related services and support organizations.

Commercial event and event support organizations

The Netherlands Tourism and Convention Board is a national tourism organization whose purpose is to promote the Netherlands to visitors at home and abroad. Each year, the NBTC promotes an international theme or event whose purpose is to create greater awareness of the Dutch "brand" and generate positive public relations and press coverage.

There is a large number of infrastructure and public sector organizations involved in the events sector and related tourism, leisure and conference activities. NBTC is headquartered in Leidschendam with a further 12 offices in its global network, including those in Belgium, Germany, Italy, France, Spain, Great Britain, India, China, Japan and the United States.

One of the most important inputs to the event business is probably the need for catering. The background of the partners is in marketing, communication and the art and design world.

FIGURE 3.2  Events organizations (commercial and others)
FIGURE 3.2 Events organizations (commercial and others)

CASE STUDY 10 Example of a commercial organization: Coeva

An organizer can choose any one of the above 'packaging' organizations, depending on the requirements of each specific event: what are the event's objectives. Exhibition (and some theater) contractors are a surprisingly mature part of the industry and have been around for many years.

Voluntary bodies, committees and individuals

The range of technical facilities provided by the companies in this field is extremely wide and reflects the importance that organizers, especially of high-profile and VIP events, attach to the need for technical facilities, be it data or video projection, voice . or incentive systems (autocues), or any other of a wide range of technologies to support a presentation, a ceremony or commentary at an event. 2006) Events Management, Oxford, Butterworth Heinemann, pp. 2001) Special Events: The Art and Science of Modern Event Management, Chichester, Wiley, pp. 2004) Strategic Sports Event Management, Oxford, Butterworth Heinemann, pp. 1999). The government infrastructure of the events sector is also becoming more evident, with an expansion of interest from tourist authorities and government departments, and an increasing number of trade and professional bodies.



In the modern world, similar parallels can be drawn from festivals such as the Welsh National Eisteddfods, which have social and community impact, as well as political and economic ones. For this reason, politicians often join activities such as the Oscars or award ceremonies, as they benefit from the reflected glory of celebrities and winners attending such events.

FIGURE 4.1 The implications of  special events
FIGURE 4.1 The implications of special events

Social and community implications

The main features of the city are its baroque town hall, the Renaissance castle and the monastery of St. Augustine. The city holds a number of events each year, the most popular of which are the Medieval Festival and the Giant Mountain Beer Festival.

CASE STUDY 11 Community implications of events

Giant Mountain’s Beer Festival

Events can be seen in the sense of performing a social role and acting as a stimulus for other related activities, such as tourism. This has been the case for tourist cities such as Brighton (England), Howth (Ireland) or Scheveningen (Netherlands).

Economic implications

The chairman of the jury panel, from the UK government, noted that 'there was more sense. The University of Liverpool and Liverpool John Moores University have set up the 'Impacts 08' initiative to conduct qualitative and quantitative research into the impact of the year.

CASE STUDY 12 Economic implications of events

In 2003, the city of Liverpool (England) bid to become the European Capital of Culture as part of an initiative of the European Union. The Impacts 08 team sought to adapt the framework into an international replicable model for future Capital of Culture research.

Liverpool European Capital of Culture

This is not to say that hosting a large special event is the right solution to the economic problems of every town, city, region or resort. In the context of a community, organizing a major event is often perceived as having a positive social and economic impact, in the same way as building a factory or tourist attraction.

Political implications

Rapidly moving onto the international scene, the festival began radio broadcasts within five years (radio was relatively new at the time). The festival has continued to this day, despite various political difficulties in its 80 years of existence.

CASE STUDY 13 Political implications for events: Salzburg festival

The peculiarity of the Salzburg Festival subsidy is that it is set by law (a political decision) – the government and councils have to pay for any deficit the festival creates. This means that the grant giver will probably want to have some influence on the festival or event.

Developmental implications

In 1865, Dr. Brookes and others formed the National Olympian Association and the following year organized a version of the Games at the Crystal Palace, London. The IOC then held the Games as part of the Paris International Exposition in 1900, at the Parc Vincennes, welcoming the first female athletes.

CASE STUDY 14 Developmental implications

From 1875 to 1881, archaeological excavations of the original site of the Games at Olympia further increased interest in reviving them, and in 1894 Baron Pierre de Coubertin helped found the International Olympic Committee [IOC]; Around 1066 athletes from 22 national teams competed across 15 disciplines and attracted around 48.1 million visitors – but the Games returned.

In 1906, after rejecting an application to hold the Games permanently in Greece, the IOC allowed the Interim Olympic Games [or 'intermediate' games] to be held in Athens; celebrating the 10th anniversary of the modern Games - the last time they were not held in the first year of a four-year Olympiad. 1 How has the perceived legacy of the Olympic movement contributed to the modern Games.


However, caution may be needed as organizations sometimes get so locked into the planning process that they never get to the doing part ('analysis paralysis'), or the plan itself becomes a cage from which they cannot escape. It could be argued that the planning process itself is the real key to what will happen.

Getting organized

Forming this group from scratch may not be easy due to the type of expertise that may be required (and not necessarily available). This also means that there is a continuum of organizational types, perhaps dependent (though not entirely) on the level of growth of the event.

Organizational issues in events of varying sizes

He continued as director of the Festival until his death in 1971, after which a new director, Paul Puaux, took over. Professionalization of the Festival was effectively done in 1980, when the Festival was established as a non-profit organization with.

CASE STUDY 15 The professionalization of events

Avignon Festival

In addition to the core activities, the planning and organization of the program may also include opening and closing ceremonies and the social and support functions such as local outings, a gala dinner or a crew farewell party. In some cases there are as many as 25 or 30 committees involved in a mega event (while a small event may have only one or two) and coordination is more likely through a regular meeting of department heads or committee chairs, rather than through the Board of Directors. Board, who would be there to oversee the strategy of the event, not worry about how many portable toilets are needed.

Event feasibility: fi nding and testing an idea

However, it is important to recognize that, due to the varied nature of individual events, there may not be a "perfect fit". Criteria for what to do may include the type of event that has been successful in the past; what can be organized, given the resources of the scout group; what can make more money, and so on.

The screening process

The essential factor that the marketing screen is meant to deal with is whether the various ideas or concepts will work in the target market. Identifying competing events can be difficult, but should at least involve compiling a list of dates when similar events in the.

FIGURE 5.5  Example pilot questionnaire for proposed events
FIGURE 5.5 Example pilot questionnaire for proposed events

CASE STUDY 16 Volunteer organizations and event screening

University College, Cork Hockey Club

Will the income cover both of these or, in the case of the capital costs, will another benefit be the outcome;. A little later, as part of the detailed planning, the outline budget can be transformed into something more detailed and accurate.

FIGURE 5.6  Events Screening Form
FIGURE 5.6 Events Screening Form

Progressing the idea

Think of the Olympics: the capital costs are about building the facilities, the infrastructure, the accommodation, etc. In all likelihood, both the booking of the mansion and the mayor's diary have long lead times, and whichever is longer (after preliminary enquiries) will have to be done first, as everything else can then follow.

The planning process

Part three deals with venue requirements, design issues, entertainment and support activities, from audiovisual equipment to parking. Objectives must be carefully considered and sufficiently specific and clear to ensure that the purpose of the event is clear to everyone involved in it, from the chairman of the organizing committee or clients to the staff or volunteers in the operation. level.

FIGURE 5.8  Simple pre-event planner
FIGURE 5.8 Simple pre-event planner

Objectives, environmental search and information-gathering

There was a feeling that the ceremony would be too short and modern, and that the event would not include the heraldic standard bearers from Scotland, as is traditional. Publicly, the reason for the absence of the flag bearers was that the ceremony should be modern, but the sharp coverage in the Scottish media of their absence suggests that the organizing committee was caught by surprise.

CASE STUDY 17 Environmental searching

In Scotland the nature of the opening of parliament was a matter of some controversy during late 1998 and early 1999. It was thought that the committee initially had no idea of ​​Scottish traditions because the reform had started in London and the committee's 'starting point' had been London, not Edinburgh.

For example, another event in the same area and type as your event could be considered competitive, but could be complementary. This information can then be included (or set aside) and helps organizers plan and identify what else is needed, as well as aid in the organization and execution of the event.

Operational planning and demand

However, there may be many other factors to consider, particularly the date or time of the event. As a result, the timing of the event can become a key factor in securing the maximum number of tickets (by avoiding other event dates).

FIGURE 5.11  Information gathering and environmental searching
FIGURE 5.11 Information gathering and environmental searching

Financial planning

Various other factors can be considered based on an assessment of the overall market, the potential total number of participants and the timing. Moving on to some of the detailed issues of the planning process, the event will require a whole range of resources.

FIGURE 5.12  Simple example of marketing lead times: Middleburg Sports Day
FIGURE 5.12 Simple example of marketing lead times: Middleburg Sports Day

CASE STUDY 18 Demand planning

Much of the cost was covered by companies sponsoring the Dome and by Lottery grants. It was opened during a ceremony scheduled to begin on the evening of December 31, 1999 and last until the early hours of January 1, 2000.

The ticket price must be based on accurate cost calculations and only then, taken into account in the light of competition and what the market will pay (which must also be based on some realistic data, not on what the organizers 'think' the market will pay, which often underestimates reality). 3 How did the debris from the opening night have an impact on the public and media image of the Dome as an attraction?

Marketing planning

The lesson is to pay enough attention to the services provided for the event and what the participants or guests are saying. Consequently, the key to the marketing program is making enough time and knowing who makes relevant decisions and when.

Getting it together

Recording the financial aspects of events, from the purchase of items to the final accounting of the budget, is potentially much more complex than the summary here. Good financial control is important to the success of events, even non-profit events, but there are many useful accounting books and software available for those looking to expand their expertise.


Financial planning and good financial control are important aspects of the event management process. In all cases, some effort should be made to provide an overview of the financial aspects of the event, both in the planning phase, during the event itself and at the end.

Objectives and fi nancial planning

It is also useful to understand the links between the original setting of objectives and following them through to financial management and budgets. The cabin capacity is 250, and the booking deadline is the end of June.

FIGURE 6.2  Cashfl ow at events
FIGURE 6.2 Cashfl ow at events

Creating a budget

Simply put, there must be enough people present and paid to cover costs and ensure a profit or small surplus. We expect 100 people to attend, so the price will be €10 per person.

FIGURE 6.5  Example of comparative outline budgets for a proposed company party
FIGURE 6.5 Example of comparative outline budgets for a proposed company party

The detailed budget

CASE STUDY 19 Event break-even

The budget can be more or less detailed, depending on the needs of the organizers or clients. For a small event, it may be sufficient to include minor costs (such as ushers) in the staff budget line.

Who spends what

For example, it does not make sense to hire 20 security guards for the whole day if they will only be needed for the first ten minutes, and such costs may appear in the forecast as inconsistent with the rest of the budget. The reasons may be legitimate and urgent, and you may need to adjust the rest of your budget to account for this, perhaps by raising prices or cutting costs for something else.

FIGURE 6.8  Budget: Detailed income and costs - fi nal outcome summary
FIGURE 6.8 Budget: Detailed income and costs - fi nal outcome summary

Other sources of income

It is important to recognize that many events have more than one source of income or revenue – in fact, there can be as many sources of income as there are costs associated with the event (see Figure 6.12). The event would be paid for by the couple and their families through donations of gifts and other useful things 'in kind', e.g.

Sponsorship and public funding

The event will be paid for within a specific budget determined by the organization and operated by the Sales Department itself (for staff training) or a related department, such as personnel, according to the appropriate organizational goals. By the 1920s it was seen as the world's toughest bicycle race, in which manufacturer teams battled it out.

CASE STUDY 20 Sponsorship and the Tour de France

If there is more than one sponsor, the respective promotional territories will be assigned in the sections of the agreement. Support functions (such as food and beverage, music and entertainment, technical services and related event activities) can be very complex depending on the size and importance of the event.


At the time of the implementation of the event, the workload will increase, as will the number of employees and resources required. When support functions are outsourced, the need for careful specifications of the service being purchased is particularly relevant.

Finding the venue

Which factors are decisive for the success of the event in relation to the location. But if food is part of your event, once you've chosen a venue, you can try samples of the food you've chosen.

FIGURE 7.1  Venue fi nding checklist
FIGURE 7.1 Venue fi nding checklist


The key to the implementation phase of the event (ie running the event itself) is good communication. DB Schenker is one of the logistics groups that now has specialist subsidiaries Events Logistics; in the case of DB Schenker, there are teams for both fairs and sporting events.

CASE STUDY 21 Event Logistics: DB Schenker

DB Schenker felt that his experience with the 2006 FIFA World Cup enabled him to center his logistics activities on three control points (in Vienna, Salzburg and Klagenfurt, Austria) and schedule vehicles at specific times from these points for the movement of the relevant supplies and equipment. In several cases, the production schedule will also indicate who is responsible for the given time activities and what methods should be used to carry them out.

Supplies, transport and distribution

Mark Fisher, the architect of the stages used on a concert tour by the pop group U2, applied. Supplies can be ordered and deliveries controlled, usually at a central point of arrival, and the supplies distributed as needed to the parts of the site where they are needed.

FIGURE 7.4  Logistic sequence for  events
FIGURE 7.4 Logistic sequence for events


Many companies will be involved and integrating the entire operation will be a major task. These are questions about the number of people, the refresh time, the budget and the visitors themselves.

FIGURE 7.6  Alternative cafeteria  fl ow services
FIGURE 7.6 Alternative cafeteria fl ow services

Technical facilities

For audio, there are copyright issues for music and video, and for venues, the quality of the facilities and the acoustics of the venue must be taken into account. In terms of providing amenities, a general rule of thumb is to provide one toilet for every 75 people (of each gender), which can be increased for VIP events.

FIGURE 7.10  Example communications contact list
FIGURE 7.10 Example communications contact list


This filtering process should have given the event organizer a solid foundation to work from and a starting place to consider some of the more detailed aspects of marketing, starting with research.

The target market

However, for many events it is useful for the marketing officer to understand the catchment area. These limitations in terms of time rather than simply distance are what will determine the outer boundary of the contributing area for the event.

FIGURE 8.2  Catchment and origin
FIGURE 8.2 Catchment and origin

CASE STUDY 22 Marketing catchment areas

How to infl uence the target market

What are the benefits of attending the event - will it be enjoyable, entertaining, enriching, educational, stimulating or exciting. What are the benefits of the event you are promoting to the attendees, visitors, guests or attendees.

The marketing plan

One of the biggest difficulties that event marketers face is that for occasional one-off events, the word-of-mouth support may not exist as no one has been to the event before or been able to get an overview of , how good or bad it is. In some respects, event marketers can try to generate word-of-mouth support by targeting opinion leaders (such as by offering advance meetings, advance "tasters" or familiarization visits at the event site), but this is problematic because not everyone can attend these warm-up events , and they are only suitable for certain types of events.

Marketing for a new event

In this way some of the target market or 'buyers' of an event can be influenced or at least informed about the planned activities. This schedule is intended to give organizers an idea of ​​lead times for various marketing activities in order to plan what needs to be done and when to get the most out of the marketing effort (see Figure 8.13).

FIGURE 8.10  Event components and target market matrix
FIGURE 8.10 Event components and target market matrix

Marketing for repeat events and new editions

Contact all potential beneficiaries of the events and create a list of VIPs and thought leaders. Send another progress bulletin, highlighting the success of the opening and especially thanking volunteers, sponsors and beneficiaries.

FIGURE 8.12  Event marketing budget form (adapt as required)
FIGURE 8.12 Event marketing budget form (adapt as required)

CASE STUDY 23 Recording of visitor information

The Geneva International Motor Show, with its 80th edition in March 2010, attracts a large number of exhibitors and visitors to the Palexpo halls in Geneva. Previous shows in Geneva have been so important that they have been opened by the President of Switzerland and the President of the Council of State, with other major political figures and celebrities present at the opening ceremony.

Geneva Motor Show

This chapter discusses some of the issues that the event coordinator, board of directors or other responsible person should consider in order to maximize the safe operation of the event for all involved. In terms of legalities, although there are some aspects of law and legislation that apply across Europe, many issues surrounding the legalities of an event vary from country to country, so event managers should understand their national and local legal requirements. .


The event planning process must consider all aspects of governance related to our statutory duties and these aspects include risk management, official licenses and permits, general and specific health and safety issues and insurance matters. Risk management can be understood as a mechanism by which we try to be aware of those things that could go wrong at an event or venue, and for which we should make plans or take measures to prevent or mitigate these risks, which more or less belong to the four groups: economic risks (such as financial losses or lack of sponsorship or grant support); Performance risks (such as event failure due to, for example, announced performers or contestants not showing up); Psychological risks (such as location, venue or previous similar event that has a bad reputation); and physical risks (that is, danger to the public or participants; health and safety issues; or crime and safety issues).

Risk management

In the examples shown in Figures 9.3 and 9.4 (provided by Tendring District Council, with some details and names changed for publication), the event taking place is a small regional kite flying championship which takes place next to the cricket ground on the same day like a cricket match. The event does not attract a large number of spectators, so crowding in the championship hall does not pose a major risk.

FIGURE 9.1  Various risk categories
FIGURE 9.1 Various risk categories

CASE STUDY 24 Crowd safety: the Moshpit at Roskilde

Tests of the equipment that found it to be in perfect working order were barely reported in the media the following week. For the organizers of the Roskilde Festival, the media backlash came as something of a shock and is a problem in event planning for those members of an event organizing team who have contact with the media and who are.

Plans and maps

The reason was essentially that the cultural behavior itself was more than usual concentrated, the effect being to focus the dynamic or lateral wave of the crowd, causing a collapse of the crowd. In the case of those events which are somehow larger, this process may need to be carried out by professional surveyors in the event that planning plans are required (eg if a new building or facility is to be constructed), or if a model of the site is required.

Legalities and insurance

The use of these risk assessment maps takes into account general and emergency access arrangements; parking, pedestrian walkways, access for disabled people; emergency or help points; first aid and first aid stations; and the location of the checkpoint or organizers office in terms of the location in general, as well as dealing with any specific risk issues that may arise from sitting down and looking at the plan as a whole. In all cases it will be necessary to take accurate measurements of the venue and, if it has never been used before or measurements are not already available, then the event coordinator will need to go out with a colleague and take measurements of the venue. careful.

CASE STUDY 25 Emergency service arrangements at events

Clacton air show

Hình ảnh

FIGURE 1.1  A suggested  categorization of  special events
FIGURE 2.1  Assessing market scope and the economics impacts of events
FIGURE 2.3  Possible motives for attending events (these may be primary or secondary)
FIGURE 2.4 Event component mix

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