According to the occurrence of groundwater, China's aquifers can be divided into four main categories: (1) alluvial deposits in plains and basins; (2) groundwater in wooded regions; (3) karstified limestone aquifers; and (4) bedrock aquifers in mountainous areas (Figure 18.1). The first type is stored in porous and poorly consolidated sediments with a large amount of water, which are mainly distributed in alluvial plains, large river valleys and the slopes of continental basins. The total area is about 5.75 million km2, with a total exploitable groundwater amount of 97 billion m3/year, accounting for 27% of all exploitable groundwater resources (China's Groundwater Information Center 2014). .
Analysis of the Integration in China’s Groundwater Management
The construction sector (now the Ministry of Housing and Urban and Rural Development) and the Ministry of Lands and Resources have been moved to the Ministry of Water Resources. In 2012, the Land Subsidence Control Program was launched by the Ministry of Land and Resources and the Ministry of Water Resources.
Recommendations Towards More Integrated Groundwater Management in China
Qin H, Cao G, Kristensen M et al (2013) Integrated hydrological modeling of the North China Plain and implications for sustainable water management. Shu Y, Villholth K, Jensen K et al (2012) Integrated hydrological modeling of the North China Plain: options for sustainable groundwater use in the Mt.
Responding to Complexity and Uncertainty
That literature turned out to be a relatively small but expanding body of published work (Mitchell et al. 2011). Nearly 300 potentially relevant publications were identified, sorted thematically and assessed for quality in terms of having solid theoretical underpinnings and providing credible evidence to support key findings (Mitchell et al. 2012).
Effective Community/Stakeholder Engagement
Henriksen and Barlebo (2008) and recently Ticehurst et al. 2011) evaluate the use of Bayesian Networks (BN) as a tool to enable stakeholder engagement in policy implementation and evaluation. They have also been used as a tool to link local ecological knowledge with science-based knowledge (Liedloff et al. 2013).
Social Impact Assessment
Notwithstanding those comments, there are international examples where social researchers have been able to make recommendations that have been empowering and proactive (Howitt 1989; Vanclay and Esteves 2011). Those additional allocations came at the expense of the majority of groundwater users who were small farmers located downstream.
Collaborative Approaches to Groundwater Governance
Lopez-Gunn2003; Wester et al.2011), the concept is also referred to as local, community-based and/or participatory management (Sandoval 2004; van Steenbergen2006; Yamamoto2008). Others have examined the difficulties that may be encountered when authorities attempt to promote groundwater self-regulation (Lopez-Gunn and Cortina 2006; Mustafa and Qazi2007; Wester et al.2011).
Influencing the Use and Management of Land and Water by Rural Landholders
The choice of policy instruments should be based on an assessment of how confident we are in the science underlying decisions about “where we are going and how to get there” (Curtis and Lefroy 2010); technology acceptability (land use or management practices); and the relative costs of different approaches, including transaction costs (Pannell 2011). If this is the case, then we need to assess whether rural landowners adopt these practices.
Conclusions .1 Future Research
A focus on developing positive social norms is one strategy that can be used to influence the adoption of new practices (Minato et al.2010). There is a trend in social research that focuses on behavior in the environment, using the theory of values-beliefs-norms (personal) (VBN) (Stern et al.1999).
Liedloff AC, Woodward EL, Harrington GA et al (2013) Integrating indigenous ecological and scientific hydro-geological knowledge using a Bayesian network in the context of water resources development. Lockwood M, Davidson J, Stratford E et al (2009) Multilevel environmental governance: lessons from Australia for natural resource management.
Groundwater Global Over Extraction and Shortage
Also, the hydraulic interconnectivity between different aquifers and between aquifers and surface water is still not fully understood in many regions. Another characteristic of groundwater is the 'shared water' component; that is, the interconnectedness of aquifers and streams.
Groundwater Policy Frameworks
In addition, the interdependence of groundwater and surface water adds to the complexity of establishing property rights. Property rights to surface water and groundwater must be coordinated to integrate the physical connection between the two resources.
Actual Groundwater Trade
States in the western parts of the United States enshrined the environmental right to water under common law doctrines. Much of the state's groundwater is connected to surface water basins, including the Platte River Basin and the Republican River Basin.
Lessons Learned from Groundwater Trade in Australia and the US
Brewer J, Glennon R, Ker A et al (2008) Watermarks in the west: prices, trade and contractual forms. Wheeler S, Loch A, Zuo A, Bjornlund H (2014) Review of the adoption and impact of water markets in the Murray-Darling Basin, Australia.
This paper investigates the potential and limits of a specific economic evaluation methodology – the contingent valuation method – that has often been recommended for conducting an integrated economic assessment of the benefits of groundwater restoration. We then discuss in Section 21.5 the limitations of the method in the context of groundwater assessment studies before closing the chapter.
Valuing the Benefits of Groundwater Protection with Contingent Valuation: A Review
The main objectives of the chapter are: (1) to present to non-economists how the contingent valuation method can be used to conduct an integrated economic assessment of the benefits of groundwater protection and restoration; and (2) to discuss the advantages and caveats of this method. In Europe, the use of CVM to assess the economic value of groundwater protection has been more integrative.
Empirical Case Studies: Objectives and Methodology
In LTS a combined Table 21.2 Main characteristics of the two groundwater reservoirs selected as case studies. In Sect.21.1 we developed several simplified schemes depicting the geometry of the aquifer and the circulation of water and/or pollutant loads in the reservoir (Fig.21.1).
In the two case studies, about two-thirds of the respondents accepted the payment, showing real concern about groundwater protection. In the first group, the concern for future generations is the main motivation for paying (49% and 52% of the MAA and LTS samples, respectively).
Discussion, Conclusions and Recommendations
One of the methods recommended and widely used to assess all these benefits is contingent valuation. Stenger A, Willinger M (1998) Conservation value for groundwater quality in a large aquifer: a contingent valuation study of the Alsace aquifer.
This chapter begins with a broad presentation of the range of economic instruments that can be used for groundwater management, considering current practices and innovative approaches inspired from the literature on common pool resource management. It begins with a broad presentation of the range of economic instruments that can be used for groundwater management, taking into account current practices and innovative approaches inspired from the literature on common pool resource management (Sec.22.2).
Economic Instruments for Groundwater Management
This information can be improved (third level) by collecting technical information on the characteristics of the wells (pump capacity), on the irrigated areas and the type of crops cultivated by the farmers and on the type of irrigation system used (drip irrigation or groove). . Based on Salzman's classification, five instruments can be used to control groundwater extraction (Salzman2005): (1) command and control; (2) penalty (including tax); (3) payments (including subsidies); (4) appropriation (tradable property rights);
From Command and Control to Self-Regulation: The Case of France
This new regulatory framework has been implemented in several groundwater basins (Figure 22.1), the most famous being the Beauce aquifer in central France. As can be seen from the abundant literature on common pool resources, the main advantage of decentralized groundwater management is that the rules are likely to be adapted to the local context.
From Command and Control to Markets: Examples from the High Plains Aquifer, USA
In the rest of the section, we will focus on describing some of these newer, innovative approaches to groundwater management. All three categories of groundwater-related conflict discussed in the previous section are observed in the high plain (Fig. 22.2).
From Command and Control to Markets: Examples from Chile
Currently Resolution 341 of 2005, Article 63 of WC 1981 and Article 39 of Resolution 425 of DGA stipulates that GUC are responsible for the management of underground water resources and water extraction. Recognizing the need to improve groundwater management regulation due to increased groundwater pumping, the 2005 amendment of WC 1981 introduced procedures to achieve sustainable management of groundwater resources.
All these aspects explain the current groundwater management institutions that have developed in the three case studies: the external imposition of water markets in Chile that do not work as expected, the management that is mostly based on quantitative sharing (with few economic instruments) in France. ) and emerging market instruments in the High Plains aquifer in the United States. We analyze the Janusian nature of groundwater in the growing groundwater economy of Morocco, Algeria and Tunisia.
Introduction: Private Groundwater Use in a Context of State-Led Irrigation Development
Groundwater also provides social status, as farmers who are part of the groundwater economy qualify themselves as. Both views recognize the weaknesses of the state in controlling the dynamics of groundwater economies; the first one praises this situation, while the second one deplores it.
The Emergence of the Groundwater Economy
The energy supply to the tube wells was often indirectly subsidized (butane gas in Morocco, electricity in Algeria and Tunisia) and the cost of equipping the tube wells (pump, motor) decreased. Intensive use of groundwater in Algeria, Morocco and Tunisia enabled the development of a 'vibrant wealth-creating agriculture', which Shah (2009) - in the South Asian context - referred to as the 'groundwater economy'.
Magnitude of the Groundwater Economy Today .1 Observing a Furtive Groundwater Economy
Despite these reservations, we think this is a useful exercise, as it gives an idea of the comparative importance of the groundwater economy in the three countries. There has been little public debate on the environmental, social and economic sustainability of groundwater economies in the region.
Illustrating the Rapid Massive Development of North Africa’s Groundwater Economy
The cooperative continued to distribute surface water, but also included state tube wells in the water distribution program. Groundwater use is likely to increase in the near future as tube wells gradually replace wells.
Three Issues Related to the Rapid and Massive Development of Groundwater Use
In the case of the Sous, clear signs of deterioration and social conflict are already visible (Popp1986; Houdret2012). This happened in the Souss (Morocco) where citrus farmers overexploited groundwater resources, and (by appealing to the state) managed to gain access to surface water by means of a 90 km pipeline, thereby creating a large number of small-scale marginalized farmers (Houdret 2012).
Conclusions: Privatization of Groundwater?
Direction générale des ressources en eau (DGRE) (2008) Inventaire de l'exploitation des nappes profondes. Ministère de l'Agriculture et de la Pêche Maritime (MAPM) (2012) La situation de l'agriculture marocaine.