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Thư viện số Văn Lang: New Horizons for Asian Museums and Museology

Nguyễn Gia Hào

Academic year: 2023

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Four years after regaining independence, the establishment of Myanmar's Ministry of Culture in 1952 gave birth to Myanmar's first national museum (Min Naing 1978: 5). In the Ayarwaddy Division, the history of the Pathein Cultural Museum (Figure 10) differs from other regional museums.

Brief History of the National Museum (Nay Pyi Taw)

Actual Perspectives on the National Museums of Yangon and Nay Pyi Taw

The collection of the National Museum is based mostly on donations from locals and transfers from the archaeological departments. A Japanese company (Miyashita Co. Ltd.) donated 42 sets of audio guide system to the National Museum (Yangon).

Actual Perspectives on Archaeological Museums, Regional Cultural Museums, and Other Types of Museum

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The Current Status of Mongolia’s Museums

Changes Taking Place in the Practical Activities of Museums Since the 1990s

Currently, these very rare finds are kept in the storage facility of the Mongolia Natural History Museum. Currently, these findings are held in the storage facility of the Natural History Museum in New York. The culture of the exploiting class has always protected the interests of the exploiting class.

Because the culture of the exploiter class will disrupt and hinder the building of a new society, it should be demolished. No conservation or storage in museum stores was allowed for productions and works from the culture of the exploiting class.

The Museum of Natural History

With the dissolution of the Central State Museum in 1991, it was decided to set up a Natural History Museum to replace it. The Central State Museum was first established in 1956 and consisted of two sections: the Natural History section and the History and Ethnicity section. In 1991, when the Central State Museum was closed, the Natural History Department preserved more than 8,000 museum pieces and artifacts.

The newly founded Museum of Natural History strove to use mainly original objects and museum exhibits when placing the exhibits in the museum halls. Currently, this museum carries out its activities in the building of the State Central Museum, which was previously dissolved (Figure 4.

The National Museum of Mongolia

The newly established Natural History Museum made major changes in the way museum exhibits were displayed and in the way the museum rooms were arranged. In 1991, when the Museum of the Revolution was closed, a total of 13,000 museum pieces and artifacts were kept in the museum. The newly established Museum of National History is the first large-scale independent museum of Mongolian history and ethnicity.

This museum is now conducting its activities in the building of the Museum of the Revolution dissolved in 1991. This Museum of the Revolution was first built on the occasion of the 50th anniversary of the People's Revolution in 1971.

By decision of the Ministry of Culture, the National History Museum was renamed the National Museum of Mongolia (Fig. 5. The purchase of new objects and goods of museum importance for the museum collection, especially in Ulaanbaatar, was organized under the supervision of the Administration of Museums, Ministry of Culture Z with the approval of the new rules, the National Museum of Mongolia was able to participate in all archaeological excavations carried out by the Institute of Archeology of the Academy of Sciences of Mongolia.

The findings of these excavations were transferred to the collection of the National Museum of Mongolia. For example, there was a case of a museum piece that had been preserved in the collection of the National Museum of Mongolia being sold through a chain of illegal antiquities businesses.

Recently there has been a clear trend for the materials of museum pieces to be classified as having been made. UNESCO projects have been carried out in some museums, such as the Zanabazar Museum of Fine Arts, and the conditions for the storage of museum exhibits have been significantly improved (Uranchimeg). In accordance with the “Law on the Conservation of Historical and Cultural Artifacts,” passed in 1994, historical and cultural artifacts were rated as “unique and priceless,” “precious,” and “ordinary” (Enkhbayar 1996: 83).

Currently, there are 250 museum pieces rated as "Unique and Priceless" stored at the museums with state or local country status. Mongolia's museums do quite a lot of work for the proper conservation and preservation of museum pieces, but this work has not yet reached the required standard.

These seminars, which had important implications and significance for the improvement of the professional skills of Mongolian museum employees, were led and conducted by Professor T. Previously, the organization of international exhibitions was limited to former socialist countries only, but from this period this restriction was further abolished, so that the organization of exhibitions on Mongolian history and ethnicity, as well as on paleontological themes, can take place in many countries of the world. The first large-scale exhibition on Mongolian history and ethnology opened in Munich, Germany in 1989.

Since then, more than ten exhibitions on Mongolian history and ethnology have opened in many countries such as the United States, France and Japan. In addition, a thematic exhibition on Mongolian dinosaurs was successfully organized in many countries of the world.

Since the National Education Law of 1997, national museums are expected to provide more educational services and facilities, but lack of museum staff and insufficient budgets remain major problems. Recently, the decision was made to reduce the number of national museums, and the small-scale national museums, formerly monastery museums, have reverted to monastery museums. To improve the image of national museums, three pilot projects are underway: the first project is to set up seven national museum storage units – a central main storage unit in Pathumthani province and six regional national museum storage units –; the second project is the renovation of the National Museum of Bangkok; and the third project is the development of the Kanchanaphisek National Museum which will represent all ethnic groups in Thailand.

During the reign of King Rama VII, in 1925, the Royal Museum at Wang Na was changed to the Museum of Phranakhon (Fig. 3) by expanding the house of galleries within other buildings of the palace. During the period of democracy, in 1934, the next museum law, i.e. the Ancient Monuments, Artifacts, Antiquities and National Museums Act, 1934, was announced, the Museum for Phranakhon was changed to “National Museum. 1 The Royal Museum at the Concordia Pavilion, Royal Palace, during the reign of King Rama V.

2 The Buddhaisawan Chapel, a part of the Royal Museum at Wang Na, during the reign of King Rama V. Bangkok,” and all museums established both before and after 1934, which were under the Department of Fine Arts, now had the status of national museum.

Historic or memorial: Phanakhonkhiri (Old Palace) National Museum (Fig. 4), Phetchaburi Province and Silp Bhirasi Memorial, Bangkok. Specialized museum: National Royal Barge Museum in Bangkok, National Royal Elephant Museum in Bangkok (Fig. 6) and National Thai Farmer Museum in Suphanburi Province. City Museum: Ubonratchathani National Museum (Fig. 7), Surin National Museum, Nan National Museum, Ratchaburi National Museum, Suphanburi National Museum and Roi-Et National Museum (Department of Fine Arts, 2006).

The large museums are mostly regional national museums: Chiang Mai National Museum, Ramkhamhaeng National Museum, Chaosamphraya National Museum, Somdet Phranarai National Museum, U Thong National Museum, Khonkaen National Museum, Phimai National Museum, Songkhla National Museum and Nakhon si Thammarat National Museum. Medium-scale museums are mostly city museums: Ubonratchathani National Museum, Ratchaburi National Museum, Surin National Museum, Banchiang National Museum, Chandharakasem National Museum, Chumphorn National Museum, Suphanburi National Museum, etc. The small museums are all former monastic museums before they became national museum units: Mahawerawong National Museum, Matchimawat National Museum, Inburi National Museum, Chainatmuni National Museum, etc.

A few major national museums, such as Ramkhamhaeng National Museum, were modified, but more than 15 years ago. Anyway, there are at least five major national museums that have been updated with new exhibits, such as the U Thong National Museum, Songkhla National Museum and Somdet Phranarai National Museum.

Many national museums never changed their permanent exhibits after they first formally opened to the public, even the National Museum Bangkok. In addition, Chiang Mai National Museum is now undergoing an adaptation project and is scheduled to open in the next two years. In addition, Suphanburi National Museum is a good example of a museum receiving budget support from the local government.

As far as the policy level is concerned, this current time is very important for national museum management. And the last one is the development of the Kanchanaphisek National Museum, the only ethnological national museum under the Department of Fine Arts.

The intention is to intensively tell the story of all ethnic groups in Thailand in the Kanchanaphisek National Museum, under the titles "Window of Ethnology", "Way of Ethnographic Lives" and "Ethnographic Identity". The action plan for the development of the Kanchanaphisek National Museum, which I am in charge of, enters its fifth year: reconstruction of the old building; exhibition in Building No. 1 (now storage space for stones and large objects); setting up an open-air exhibition “ethnographic architecture”; and renovation of building No. 2 (now storage space for ethnographic and religious objects) and exhibition. It is planned to open the museum to the public after the exhibition in Building No. 1 and the open-air 'ethnographic architecture' are completed.

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