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Thư viện số Văn Lang: Firm Innovation and Productivity in Latin America and the Caribbean: The Engine of Economic Development

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Nguyễn Gia Hào

Academic year: 2023

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325

© Inter-American Development Bank 2016

M. Grazzi and C. Pietrobelli (eds.), Firm Innovation and Productivity in Latin America and the Caribbean, DOI 10.1057/978-1-349-58151-1

A

Abetti, P. , 170 Abramovitz, M. , 218

Acemoglu, D. , 40, 47, 76, 162n1 Acs, Z.J. , 66n18, 122, 170, 171 Africa

banking products, access to , 253 credit markets in , 251

internet diffusion and use in , 104–107, 105 f , 107 f age of fi rms . See also young fi rms

banking products, access to , 256 t credit access, constraints on , 249 fi nancing by fi rms , 252–261,

254–255 t

young vs. mature fi rms , 24–25, 174, 213

Aggarwal, A. , 47

agglomeration economies, innovation and , 20, 50–51, 55

Aghion, P. , 51, 66n20 Ahmad, N. , 289

Aigner, D. , 89–90 Aitken, B.J. , 288, 310n3

Almeida, R. , 137, 138, 141, 142, 148, 149, 153, 163n14

Alvarado, A. , 53

Álvarez, R. , 9, 51, 52, 287 Álvarez, S. , 170

Angelelli, Pablo , 24, 167 Anlló, G. , 40, 52, 65n2 Antigua and Barbuda

banking products, access to , 256 t credit markets in , 252

economy, characterization of , 209 t education and skill levels, worker ,

219, 220 f

entrepreneurship in , 217–218 f fi nancing constraints , 259 t fi nancing structure in , 255 t fi rms surveyed , 11 t ICT usage in , 213 f

innovation activities , 9 t , 78–80 t , 80, 94 t , 96 t

Note: Page numbers followed by f, t, n refer to fi gures, tables and notes

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Antigua and Barbuda (cont.) sales, export vs. non-export , 215 f size of fi rms , 212 f , 239n7 Antràs, P. , 296

Argentina

banking products, access to , 255, 256 t banking systems in , 251–252 credit access and fi nancing

constraints , 249–252, 254 t , 259 t

fi rms surveyed , 11 t foreign-owned banks , 252 innovation activities , 40–41 international linkages , 292–297,

293 t , 295 f , 305

internet diffusion and use , 106 on-the-job training , 143 t , 149 f productivity performance , 4 f young fi rms , 174, 175, 200nn8–10 Arias Ortiz, E. , 212, 231, 232,

234, 241 Arnold, J.M. , 310n4 Arrow, K.J. , 47, 48 Arun, T. , 279n9

Arvanitis, S. , 103, 119, 120, 131n9 Arza, V. , 76

Asia

banking systems in , 251–252 foreign-owned banks , 252 innovation activities , 40 internet diffusion and use in ,

104–107, 105 f , 107 f Aterido, R. , 153, 163n19, 226, 228 Atrostic, B.K. , 103, 119

Audretsch, D.B. , 66n18, 122, 171 Aw, B.Y. , 40, 76, 93

Ayyagari, M. , 27, 168, 212, 246

B Bahamas

banking products, access to , 256 t

credit access and fi nancing constraints , 251, 259 t economy, characterization of , 209 t education and skill levels, worker ,

220 f

entrepreneurship in , 217–218 f fi nancing structure in , 254 t fi rm operation, obstacles to , 226,

227 f , 229 t , 230–231 fi rms surveyed , 11 t

innovation activities , 9 t, 77–80 t , 79–80, 94t , 96 t

on-the-job training , 143 t , 147 t , 149, 161 t

sales, export vs. non-export , 215 f size of fi rms , 212 f, 239n7 Balsmeier, B. , 50

Banerjee, A. , 246, 258

banking systems , 251–252 . See also fi nancing, access to

Barbados

banking products, access to , 256 t banking systems in , 251

credit access and fi nancing constraints , 251, 252, 259 t economy, characterization of , 209 t education and skill levels, worker ,

219, 220 f , 222

entrepreneurship in , 217–218 f fi nancing structure in , 254 t fi rm operation, obstacles to ,

226–227, 226 t , 227 f , 229 t , 230–231

fi rms surveyed , 11 t ICT usage in , 213 f, 214 informal sector fi rms , 12 innovation activities , 9 t, 77–80 t ,

79–80, 94 t , 96 t on-the-job training , 143 t sales, export vs. non-export , 215 f size of fi rms , 211, 212 f , 239n7 Barba Navaretti, B. , 288, 310n3

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Barbuda . See Antigua and Barbuda Barker, V.L. , 50

Barro, R. , 220 f , 239–240n14 Bartel, A.P. , 110, 141, 159 Bassanini, A. , 141, 142, 145, 146,

149, 153, 162n5 Bassi, M. , 138, 146 Baum, J.R. , 170 Bayo-Moriones, A. , 111

Beck, T. , 245–246, 248–250, 257, 265, 270

Becker, G. , 139 Belize

banking products, access to , 256 t credit access and fi nancing

constraints , 259 t

economy, characterization of , 209 t education and skill levels, worker ,

220 f, 222

entrepreneurship in , 217–218 f fi nancing structure in , 254 t fi rm operation, obstacles to , 226,

226 t, 227 f, 229 t, 230–231 fi rms surveyed , 11 t

ICT usage in , 213 f, 214

innovation activities , 9 t, 77–80 t, 79, 94 t, 96 t

sales, export vs. non-export , 215 f size of fi rms , 211, 212 f, 239n7 Benavente, J.M. , 40, 41, 53 Benhabib, J. , 120

Berger, A.N. , 245, 248 Bergoeing, R. , 5, 32n6 Bernard, A.B. , 287 Bertrand, O. , 310n4

Bertschek, I. , 120, 122, 131n13 Biene, M. , 240n16

Bishop, J.H. , 145 Black, S. , 162n2 Bloom, N. , 33n4 Blyde, J.S. , 294 Bolivia

banking products, access to , 256 t fi nancing constraints , 259 t fi nancing structure in , 254 t fi rms surveyed , 11 t on-the-job training , 143 t ,

144 f , 149 f

productivity performance , 4 f Borghans, L. , 141

“born globals” , 174, 201n15 Braga, H. , 52

Bravo, C. , 41 Brazil

banking products, access to , 255, 256 t

banking systems in , 251–252 credit access and fi nancing

constraints , 249–252, 259 t fi nancing structure in , 254 t fi rm development, public support

for , 9–10 fi rms surveyed , 11 t foreign-owned banks , 252 ICT adoption , 130 innovation activities , 40 international linkages , 292–297,

293 t , 295 f , 305

on-the-job training , 143 t , 144 f , 148, 149

productivity performance , 4, 4 f , 7–8

Bresnahan, T.F. , 131n8 Bridge, S. , 170

broadband connections . See

information and communication technologies (ICTs)

Brown, M. , 265, 273 Brüderl, J. , 170

Bruhn, M. , 271 f , 272 t , 276 t , 279n1, 279n6

Brynjolfsson, E. , 104, 119, 120 Busenitz, L. , 170

Busso, M. , 5, 6

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C

CAF Development Bank of Latin America , 168, 169

Calvo, J. , 76

Canada Department of Foreign Affairs , 33n13, 210 Canada, internet diffusion in ,

104–107, 105 f, 107 f Capelleras, J.L. , 168

Cardim De Carvalho, F.J. , 251 Cardona, M. , 103, 119, 121 Caribbean Community Secretariat

(CARICOM) , 74

Caribbean Council for Science and Technology , 74

Caribbean economies . See also specifi c countries

banking systems in , 251

characterization of , 209–211, 209 t credit access, constraints on ,

251–252 credit markets in , 251 data on , 25, 207–208, 210,

211, 219

diasporic entrepreneurs , 220–221, 240nn18–19

economic growth, factors driving , 5 entrepreneurship in , 216–219,

217–218 f , 217 f , 239nn10–12 fi nancing by fi rms in , 252–261,

254–255 t

fi rms surveyed , 11–12, 11 t GDP per capita , 209–210,

209 t , 210

growth accounting , 1–2 t informal sector fi rms , 12

macroeconomic reforms , 7–8, 324 productivity performance , 3–9, 4 f productivity quintiles on obstacles to , 228–231, 229–230 t , 238 t research on, need for , 210, 324 slowdown in growth of , 1–4, 317

world trade networks, connection to , 210

Caribbean fi rms, principal characteristics of , 211–216 data on , 235

econometric analysis of productivity , 231–235, 233 t

entrepreneurship in , 216–219, 217 f , 239n10

fi rm operation, obstacles to , 226–235

growth and performance in , 222–225, 223–224 f , 236–238 t human capital, principal

characteristics of , 216–222, 319–320

ICT usage in , 213–214, 214 f mature vs. young fi rms in , 213, 320 policy implications , 235–236 sales, export vs. non-export ,

214–216, 215 f , 239n9 services vs. manufacturing sectors ,

212–213

size of fi rms , 211–213, 212 f small and medium enterprises, LAC

vs. Caribbean , 211–212 workforce in , 219–222, 220 f , 221 f Caribbean Knowledge Series , 212, 219 Carneiro, P. , 141

Castellani, D. , 288, 310n3 Cathles, Alison , 25, 130, 207 Cattaneo, O. , 288, 294

CDM model , 15–16, 39, 42–46, 53, 65n5, 75

Central America . See Latin American economies; specifi c countries Cetorelli, N. , 248

Chan, S. , 170 Chen, D.H. , 51 Chen, W. , 310n4 Chile

banking products, access to , 255, 256 t

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banking systems in , 251–252 credit access and fi nancing

constraints , 251–252 fi nancing constraints , 259 t fi nancing structure in , 254 t fi rms surveyed , 11 t foreign-owned banks , 252 innovation activities , 40–41, 51 international linkages , 292–297,

293 t , 295 f , 305

internet diffusion and use , 107 on-the-job training , 141–142, 143 t ,

144 f , 148–149, 149 f productivity performance , 4 f tax exemption program , 141 young fi rms , 173–175, 194 t ,

200n10, 200nn8–10, 202n29 China

growth accounting in vs. LAC , 2 t , 3–4, 32n2

innovation activities , 40 productivity performance , 6 Chrisman, J. , 170

Chudnovsky, D. , 40, 76 Chun, H. , 110

Ĉihák, M. , 251

Claessens, S. , 248, 250, 252, 273 Clarke, G. , 246, 250

Clerides, S.K. , 287, 310n1 Coad, A. , 173, 200n1

Cobb–Douglas production function , 16, 21, 30, 44, 58, 60, 89, 126, 154, 164n23, 298, 305 Cohen, W.M. , 39, 45, 53, 75, 93,

120, 122

Cole, R.A. , 249, 257, 265 Colecchia, A. , 119 Colombia

banking products, access to , 255, 256 t banking systems in , 251–252 credit access and fi nancing

constraints , 249–252, 259 t

fi nancing structure in , 254 t fi rms surveyed , 11 t foreign-owned banks , 252 ICT adoption , 130 innovation activities , 41 on-the-job training , 143 t , 144 f ,

147 t , 149, 149 f , 161 t productivity performance , 4 f young fi rms , 174, 175, 194 t ,

200nn9–10 Colombo, M. , 170 competition

credit access, impact of , 248, 251, 277–278

ICT adoption, effect of , 115 innovation investments, impact on ,

51–52

Conference Board, The , 32 Contreras, O.F. , 296 Conyon, M.J. , 310n4 Cooper, A. , 170 Correa, P. , 40, 76 Costa Rica

banking products, access to , 256 t credit access and fi nancing

constraints , 249, 259 t fi nancing structure in , 254 t fi rms surveyed , 11 t innovation activities , 41 internet diffusion and use , 106 on-the-job training , 143 t, 144 f productivity performance , 4 f TFP performance relative to

U.S. , 3–4

young fi rms, characteristics of , 174, 195 t

Crandall, R.W. , 131n11

credit access . See fi nancing, access to credit registries , 28, 247, 248, 250,

252, 261, 264, 270, 271 f, 279n6

Crépon, B. , 15, 39, 44, 75, 76, 91

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Crespi, Gustavo , 2, 18, 38, 41, 45, 53, 55, 64, 74, 76, 77, 91–97, 99n2, 137, 153, 212, 213, 245 Cull, R. , 279n2

Cunha, F. , 162n8 Czarnitzki, D. , 50 Czernich, N. , 119

D

Dahlman, C.J. , 51

data and methodologies , 10–14 enterprise survey methodology , 12 fi nancial variables, conversion

of , 13, 210

fi rms surveyed , 11–12, 11 t limitations of , 12–13

measures of performance , 13–14 Daude, C. , 74, 137

Davidsson, P. , 169 Dearden, L. , 154, 159 De Ferranti, D.M. , 67n22 Degryse, H. , 248

De La Cruz, J. , 296, 311n5 de la Torre, A. , 248 De León, O. , 121 Delgado, M. , 84 Dell’Ariccia, G. , 248 De Loecker, J. , 310n2 demand pull , 39, 42, 47–53,

48–49 t, 75 De Mel, S. , 246, 258 Demirgüç-Kunt, A. , 245 De Negri, J.A. , 53 Detragiache, E. , 248

diasporic entrepeneurs , 220–221, 240nn18–19

Didier, T. , 251, 252 Dietrich, A. , 249, 257, 265 DiNardo, J. , 86, 87 Djankov, S. , 250 Dollar, D. , 5

domestic fi nancial systems , 27, 251 Dominica

banking products, access to , 256 t economy, characterization of , 209 t education and skill levels,

worker , 220 f

entrepreneurship in , 216–218 f fi nancing constraints , 259 t fi nancing structure in , 255 t fi rms surveyed , 11 t ICT usage in , 213 f

innovation activities , 9 t, 77–80 t, 79–80, 94 t, 96 t

on-the-job training , 143 t sales, export vs. non-export ,

214, 215 f

size of fi rms , 212 f, 239n7 young vs. mature fi rms , 213 Dominican Republic

banking products, access to , 256 t credit access and fi nancing

constraints , 259 t economy, characterization

of , 209 t

education and skill levels, worker , 219, 220 f

entrepreneurship in , 217–218 f fi nancing structure in , 255 t fi rm operation, obstacles

to , 227 f, 229 t fi rms surveyed , 11 t ICT usage in , 213 f

innovation activities , 9 t, 78–80, 78–80 t, 94t, 96 t

on-the-job training , 143 t, 144 f productivity performance , 4 f sales, export vs. non-export , 215 f size of fi rms , 211, 212 f

Dosi, G. , 7 dualism , 6

Dufl o, E. , 246, 258 Dussel Peters, E. , 296

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E East Asia

banking products, access to , 253 foreign-owned banks , 252

growth accounting in vs. LAC , 1–2, 2 t, 32n1

internet diffusion and use in , 104–107, 105 f, 107 f TFP performance in , 2–3, 32n2 Easterly, W. , 4

ECLAC , 9, 189 t economic growth

factors driving , 5

productivity performance , 3–9, 4 f, 37

slowdown of in LAC , 1–4, 317 worldwide comparison of , 1–2, 2 t Ecuador

banking products, access to , 257 t credit access and fi nancing

constraints , 249, 260 t fi nancing structure in , 255 t fi rms surveyed , 11 t

on-the-job training , 143 t, 144 f, 149, 149 f

productivity performance , 4 f young fi rms, characteristics of ,

173–174, 195 t, 200n9 education and training . See also

on-the-job training (OJT) entrepreneurs, characteristics

of , 170

skill levels, Caribbean , 219–221, 220 f skill shortages, Caribbean , 26,

226–227, 226 t, 227–228 f, 230 t

electricity, as operational obstacle , 26, 226 t, 227, 229–230 t, 241n30, 308 t

El Salvador

banking products, access to , 257 t fi nancing constraints , 260 t

fi nancing structure in , 255 t fi rms surveyed , 11 t

on-the-job training , 143 t, 144 f email, use of , 106–107, 107 f emigration patterns, Caribbean ,

220–221, 240nn18–19 employees . See human capital employer-provided training . See

on-the-job training (OJT) endogeneity bias , 127, 131n13, 141,

153, 155, 200n6, 201nn24–26, 240n23, 286, 301, 302, 312nn21–22

entrepreneurship . See also young fi rms

characteristics of , 170–171 diasporic entrepreneurs , 220–221,

240nn18–19

economic growth, relation to , 169–171, 239nn10–11 female entrepreneurs , 174, 200n10,

253

necessity entrepreneurship , 24, 174

policies for young fi rms on , 186–187, 202n29 rates of, Caribbean , 216–219,

217–218 f, 217 f, 239nn10–12 rates of, Latin America , 24, 168,

169, 174, 176

EPFE survey data , 14, 142, 144, 147, 162n3

Ericson, R. , 7 Europe

banking systems in , 251, 252 foreign-owned banks , 252 innovation studies vs. LAC , 15,

38, 75

internet diffusion and use in , 104–107, 105 f, 107 f

on-the-job training , 143–145, 144 f, 162n5

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exporting

international linkages, econometric analysis of , 297–298, 298 t, 301–305, 302 t, 304 t, 306–310 t

“learning-by-exporting” , 239n9, 287

sales, export vs. non-export , 214–216, 215 f, 239n9 trade in value added and GVCs ,

288–297, 290 f, 293 t, 295–296 f

in young fi rms , 174 external capabilities

innovation investments, determinant of , 16, 42, 47–53, 48–49 t productivity performance and , 7–8 external knowledge, access to , 16, 42,

47–53, 48–49 t, 56–58

F

Fabiani, S. , 110, 131n9 Fafchamps, M. , 287 Faggian, A. , 119, 121 Fally, T. , 296

Farole, T. , 298

FDI . See foreign direct investment (FDI)

Federico, Juan , 24, 168, 182 Feenstra, R.C. , 2

Felder, J. , 76

female entrepreneurs , 174, 200n10, 253 Fernandez, A. , 310n2

Fernández-Arias, E. , 2, 3 f, 4 f, 74, 137

Ferrero Zucoloto, G. , 163n10 fi nancial variables, conversion of , 13 fi nancing, access to

bank branches, rates of , 251–252 banking products, access to , 253,

255–257 t, 262 f

banking system changes , 251–252 constraints on , 257–261, 259–260 t credit market structure and access ,

247–252, 270–273, 272 t, 321 data on , 27–28, 246

determinants for fi rms , 263–265 fi rm-and country-level

characteristics, role of , 266–270 t

fi rm fi nancing, Caribbean , 226–227, 226 t, 227–230 f

fi rm fi nancing, LAC , 252–261, 254–255 t

fi rm-level characteristics and , 248–249, 252–253, 279nn1–2 foreign banks, role of , 251–252,

274–276 t

growth and performance, impact on , 245–247, 320–321 innovation investments, determinant

of , 16, 42, 47–53, 48–49 t legal systems, impact of , 249 lending technologies, bank , 248 loan application measuring ,

257–261

male- vs. female-owned fi rms , 174, 200n10, 253, 256 t

on-the-job training, impact on , 139, 140 t

policy implications for , 277–278 small and medium enterprises, LAC

vs. Caribbean , 211–212 structure of fi nancing , 253–255 t Finland, growth accounting in , 2–3,

2 t, 105 f fi rm development

macroeconomic vs. microeconomic approach to , 7–8, 324 productivity performance , 3–9, 4 f public support for , 9–10, 9–10 t fi rms surveyed , 11–12, 11 t Flores, Roberto , 21, 137

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Foray, D. , 51

Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) econometric analysis of productivity ,

297–298, 298 t, 301–305, 302 t, 304 t, 306–310 t

innovation and productivity , 42, 47–53, 48–49 t, 55, 66n19, 321–322

trade in value added and GVCs , 285, 288–297, 290 f, 293 t, 295–296 f

foreign-owned banks, role of , 248–

253, 274–276 t

foreign-owned fi rms . See international linkages

Forman, C. , 119 Foster, L. , 5 Foster, M. , 170

France, innovation in , 39, 75 Francis, D. , 211, 213, 239n7

franquicia tributaria , 146, 148, 163n12

Frazis, H. , 145 Freeman, C. , 73 Fukao, K. , 310n4

G

Galasso, A. , 50 Galindo, A.J. , 246, 249 Galliano, D. , 111 Gambardella, A. , 111 Garnsey, E. , 169 GDP per capita

Caribbean economies , 209–210, 209 t

LAC vs. comparison countries , 2–3, 2 t

Latin American economies , 2–4, 2 t, 37

generalized method of moments (GMM) , 120

Gereffi , G. , 303 Gibson, J. , 240n17 Gilbert, B. , 171 Gilchrist, S. , 103, 119 Girma, S. , 310n2, 310n4 Girma, S.A. , 47, 310n2 Giunta, A. , 110, 111

Global Entrepreneurship Monitor , 24, 176

Global Financial Development Database , 251–252

global value chains (GVCs) , 288–297, 290 f, 293 t, 295–296 f

Goedhuys, M. , 231, 240n24 Gompers, P.A. , 171

González-Velosa, Carolina , 21, 137 Gorg, H.B. , 47

Gormley, T.A. , 273 Grant, R. , 171

Grazzi, Matteo , 1, 137, 245, 317 Greenaway, D. , 287

Greene, W.H. , 111 Greiner, L.E. , 169 Grenada

banking products, access to , 257 t economy, characterization of , 209 t education and skill levels, worker ,

219, 220 f

entrepreneurship in , 217–218 f fi nancing constraints , 260 t fi nancing structure in , 255 t fi rms surveyed , 11 t ICT usage in , 213 f

innovation activities , 9 t , 78–80 t , 94 t , 96 t

sales, export vs. non-export , 214, 215 f

size of fi rms , 212 f , 239n7 Grenadines . See St. Vincent & the

Grenadines

Griffi th, R. , 37–40, 43, 45, 65–66nn8–10, 73–77, 99n2

(10)

Griliches, Z. , 42, 44, 73, 75 Grilli, L. , 170

Grossman, G. , 287 growth accounting

ICT adoption and , 103 LAC vs. comparison countries ,

1–2, 2 t

TFP performance , 2–4, 2 t , 3 f , 32n2 Guatemala

banking products, access to , 257 t fi nancing constraints , 260 t fi nancing structure in , 255 t fi rms surveyed , 11 t

on-the-job training , 143 t , 149 f productivity performance , 4 f TFP performance relative to

U.S. , 3–4

young fi rms, characteristics of , 174, 196 t

Guloglu, B. , 39 Gutiérrez, L.H. , 120 Guyana

banking products, access to , 257 t credit access and fi nancing

constraints , 252, 260 t economy, characterization of ,

209 t , 210

education and skill levels, worker , 219, 220 f , 222

entrepreneurship in , 217–218 f , 221 fi nancing structure in , 255 t fi rm operation, obstacles to , 226 t ,

227, 228 f , 230 t , 231 fi rms surveyed , 11 t ICT usage in , 213 f , 214 innovation activities , 9 t , 78–80 t ,

79–80, 94 t , 96 t

sales, export vs. non-export , 215 f size of fi rms , 212 f , 239n7 GVCs . See global value

chains (GVCs)

H

Haelermans, C. , 141

Hall, B. , 39, 40, 52, 65, 65n1, 65n3, 66n9, 75, 76, 160

Hall, R.E. , 4, 38, 39, 73 Haller, S.A. , 110, 111

Hallward-Driemeier, M. , 226, 228 Hansen, H. , 258

Harris, R. , 310n4

Harrison, A.E. , 288, 310n3 Hayakawa, K. , 287

Heckman, J.J. , 22, 116, 138, 145, 162n8, 264

Hegde, D. , 40, 76

Helpman, E. , 287, 288, 297 Hempell, T. , 120

Henrekson, M. , 170 Heshmati, A. , 40 heterogeneity

in Caribbean fi rms , 211 credit access and fi nancing

constraints , 252, 258, 277, 280n14

innovation in Latin America, impact of , 17, 39–40, 60, 62–63, 62 f, 63 t

of on-the-job training, effect of , 157–158, 157 t

productivity performance , 6–7, 318, 322–323

in young fi rms , 178, 185 Hijzen, A. , 288, 310n3 Hitt, L.M. , 104, 119, 120 Hollenstein, H. , 111 Honduras

banking products, access to , 257 t fi nancing constraints , 260 t fi nancing structure in , 255 t fi rms surveyed , 11 t

internet diffusion and use , 106 on-the-job training , 143 t, 144–145,

144 f, 145 f, 147 t, 149, 161 t

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productivity performance , 4 f TFP performance relative to U.S. , 3 Hsieh, C.T. , 6

Hulme, D. , 279n9 human capital

education and skill levels, worker , 219–222, 220 f, 221 f entrepreneurship , 216–219, 217 f,

239n10

ICT adoption, effect on , 115 innovation and productivity , 42,

47–53, 48–49 t, 319–320 principal characteristics of , 216–222,

319–320 workforce , 219–222 in young fi rms , 24, 174 Hummels, D. , 311n5 Hunneus, C. , 138, 145

I

Ibarra García, Sabrina , 24, 167 Ibarrarán, P. , 141

ICTs . See information and communication technologies (ICTs)

Ientile, D. , 163n11 importing

international linkages, econometric analysis of , 297–298, 298 t, 301–305, 302 t, 304 t, 306–310 t sales, export vs. non-export ,

214–216, 215 f, 239n9 trade in value added and GVCs ,

288–297, 290 f, 293 t, 295–296 f

India, productivity performance , 6 informal sector, lack of data on , 12 information and communication

technologies (ICTs) adoption of , 107–118, 108 t ,

112–114 t , 117–118 t , 319

Caribbean fi rms, usage in , 213–214, 214 f data on , 104–107

economic growth, impact of , 19–21, 103–104

email, use of , 106–107, 107 f human capital, effect on , 115 innovation and productivity, effect

on , 119–130, 124–125 t, 128 t innovation investments, impact of ,

51–52

internet diffusion and use , 104–107, 105 f, 107 f, 319

policy implications for , 130 research on, need for , 130 websites, use of , 105–107,

107 f, 225

innovation activities, Caribbean characteristics of fi rms , 94 t, 96 t data and analysis , 18, 74–75,

77–90, 78 t

econometric analysis and results , 90–97, 97 t

foreign investment and , 19 growth and performance, impact

on , 9 t, 17–19, 73–80, 78–80 t, 96–98, 97 t, 318

innovation and productivity , 17–19, 73–77

investing in , 93–96

product and process innovation , 19, 80 f, 83 t

productivity differences, non and semi-parametric analysis of , 80–90, 81–82 t, 83 f, 87–88 f public fi nancial support , 19, 322 research and development , 75–77,

96–98

research on, need for , 17–18, 324 technological innovation,

investment in , 95–98, 99n2 types of activities , 78–80, 79 t

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innovation activities, Latin America agglomeration economies and , 20,

50–51, 55

competition and , 51–52

data and methodologies for , 38–41 dataset and empirical

implementation , 46–53, 48–49 t determinants of innovation , 15–16,

42, 47–53, 48–49 t

external knowledge, access to , 16, 42, 47–53, 48–49 t, 56–58 foreign investment and , 42, 47–53,

48–49 t, 55, 66n19

growth and performance, impact on , 14–17, 37–41, 63–64, 318 heterogeneous impacts of , 17,

39–40, 60, 62–63, 62f, 63 t, 322–323

ICTs, impact on , 51–52

intellectual property management , 47, 50, 73

investment in, impact of , 38–41 outputs and productivity ,

56–58, 57 t

product and process innovation , 40, 47–53, 65n3, 65n8 public fi nancial support , 16, 52, 322 R&D and productivity , 14–17,

37–40, 53–58, 54 t

research on, need for , 38, 65n2, 324 size of fi rms and , 53

spillovers and productivity , 17, 39, 58–60, 59 t, 61 t

technological innovation and productivity , 39–40

intellectual property, innovation and , 47, 50, 73

Inter-American Development Bank , 37, 60, 69, 74, 137, 142, 212, 213, 277

Compete Caribbean Program , 33n13, 210, 240n19

EPFE survey, fi nancing of , 14 WBES survey, fi nancing of , 12 internal capabilities

innovation investments, determinant of , 16, 42, 47–53, 48–49 t productivity performance and , 7–8 internalization, fi nancing and , 253,

254–255 t, 256 t international linkages

data on , 285, 289, 291–292, 311n6 econometric analysis of productivity , 297–298, 298 t, 301–305, 302 t, 304 t, 306–310 t

foreign-owned fi rms , 292–295, 293 t, 295 f 321–322 growth and performance, impact

on , 285–288, 305 multinational fi rms, innovation

investments , 42, 47–53, 48–49 t, 66n19

trade in value added and GVCs , 285, 288–297, 290 f, 293 t, 295–296 f

world production, fragmentation of , 288

International Telecommunications Union (ITU) , 104–106, 109 f internet and broadband connections .

See information and

communication technologies (ICTs)

Iossifov, P. , 293 t, 307 t Irwin, D.A. , 50 Isgut, A. , 310n2 Ito, Y. , 288, 310n3

J

Jaffe, A.B. , 51 Jaffe, D.M. , 247 Jamaica

banking products, access to , 257 t

(13)

credit access and fi nancing constraints , 252, 260 t economy, characterization of , 209 t education and skill levels, worker ,

220 f, 222

entrepreneurship in , 17–218 f, 221 fi nancing structure in , 255 t fi rm operation, obstacles to , 226,

226 t, 228 f, 230 t, 231 fi rms surveyed , 11 t ICT usage in , 213 f, 214

innovation activities , 9 t , 77, 78–80 t , 94 t , 96 t

on-the-job training , 143 t productivity performance , 4 f sales, export vs. non-export , 215 f size of fi rms , 212 f

tax system in , 226 Janz, N , 40

Jappelli, T. , 249, 250 Javorcik, B. , 310n4 Jefferson, G.H. , 40, 76 Jensen, J.B. , 216, 287 job creation

growth of fi rms and , 183 innovation and , 39

in small and young fi rms , 168, 212, 216

Johansson, D. , 170 Johnson, R.C. , 311n5 Jones, C.I. , 4, 38, 39, 73 Jones, J. , 220

Jordan, V. , 121

Jorgenson, D.W. , 103, 119 Jovanovic, B. , 7

Jung, Juan , 19, 103

K

Kaiser, U. , 120 Kaluza, P. , 210 Kamien, M. , 50

Kang, S.M. , 40, 76

Kantis, Hugo , 24, 167, 168, 171, 182 Karlsson, C. , 111

Karshenas, M. , 107 Katz, J. , 7, 38

Kaufman, D. , 263 f, 272 t, 276 t, 279n11

Keilbach, M. , 171 Keller, W. , 111 Kenya

ITC adoption in , 105 f on-the-job training , 141 Kimura, F. , 288, 310n3 Kirton, C. , 221 Kiyota, K. , 288, 310n3 Klenow, P.J. , 4, 6, 50 Klepper, S. , 53, 122 Klomp , L, 40 Kneller, R. , 287 knowledge-based sectors

economic growth in Latin America and , 37–38

entrepreneurship in , 216 young fi rms, growth and

performance of , 24, 177 Kolmogorov–Smirnov test , 81 t, 84, 90 Kon, Y. , 258

Koopman, R. , 289, 290 f, 291, 311n5 Kumar, N. , 47

Kuntchev, V. , 249

L

Labor market theory , 22 labor productivity

banking products, access to , 256 t in Caribbean fi rms , 222–225,

223–224 f

credit access and fi nancing

constraints , 258, 261 f , 280n12 fi nancing by fi rms , 252–261,

254–255 t

(14)

labor productivity (cont.)

growth accounting , 2 t, 3–4, 32n2 innovation, impact on , 39–40, 83 f,

85 t, 87–88 f, 96–97 as measure of performance , 14 productivity performance , 5–7 in young fi rms , 180–182, 181 t, 320 LAC-7 . See Argentina; Brazil; Chile;

Colombia; Mexico; Peru;

Venezuela Lall, S. , 7

Latin American economies . See also innovation activities, Latin America; specifi c countries economic growth, factors driving , 5 entrepreneurship in , 24, 168, 169,

174, 176

external vs. internal factors , 7–8 fi nancing by fi rms in , 252–261,

254–255 t

fi rms surveyed , 11–12, 11 t GDP per capita , 2–4, 2 t, 37 growth accounting in vs. comparison

countries , 1–2, 2 t informal sector fi rms , 12

macroeconomic reforms , 7–8, 324 productivity performance , 3–9, 4 f slowdown in growth of , 1–4, 317 TFP performance relative to U.S. ,

3–4, 3 f, 32n2 Laursen, K. , 216 Lavopa, A. , 6

Lazear, E. , 159, 162n2

“learning-by-exporting” , 239n9, 287 Lederman, D. , 74, 168, 169, 311n13 Lee, C. , 171

Lee, J.W. , 220 f, 239–240n14 Lee, K. , 40, 76

Lefebvre, L. , 131n8

legal systems, credit access , 249 lending technologies, bank , 248, 250 Lera-Lopez, F. , 111

Lerner, J. , 171 Leuven, E. , 141 Levie, J. , 169 Levine, R. , 4 Levine test , 303

Levinsohn, J. , 155, 164n23

Levinthal, D. , 39, 45, 53, 75, 93, 120 Levy, F. , 162n7

Lichtenstein, B. , 169 Lileeva, A. , 310n2 Loof, H. , 40 López, A. , 76

López, R. , 287, 310n2 Loukis, E.N. , 103, 119, 120 Love, P.E.D. , 131n8 Lucchetti, R. , 111 Lundvall, B.A. , 7 Lynch, L. , 162n2

M

Mack, E. , 119, 121

macroeconomic reforms , 7–8, 324 Maffi oli, A. , 52, 160

Mairesse, J. , 38–40, 52, 65–66nn8–9, 73, 75, 76

Makler, H. , 249

Malaysia, innovation activities , 40 Malerba, F. , 7

Mansfi eld, E. , 108 manufacturing sector

banking products, access to , 256 t data on , 12–13

fi nancing by fi rms , 252–261, 254–255 t

innovation activities in , 41 product innovation in , 40 productivity in Caribbean fi rms ,

222–225, 223–224 f, 236–238 t productivity performance , 5–6 services sector vs. in productivity ,

212–213

(15)

Martínez Pería, M.S. , 279n2 Martins, P.S. , 287

Mason, C. , 171 McGuckin, R.H. , 216

McKenzie, D. , 240n17, 279n1 McMillan, M. , 5

measures of performance , 13–14 Melitz, M. , 287

Mercer-Blackman, V. , 163n10 Mexico

banking products, access to , 255, 257 t

banking systems in , 251–252 credit access and fi nancing

constraints , 249–252, 260 t fi nancing structure in , 255 t fi rms surveyed , 11 t foreign-owned banks , 252 innovation activities , 40 international linkages , 292–297,

293 t, 295 f, 305

internet diffusion and use , 106 on-the-job training , 143 t,

144 f, 149 f

productivity performance , 4 f young fi rms , 196 t

Mian, A. , 248 Micco, A. , 279n2

micro-fi nance institutions , 279n9 micro-fi rms . See entrepreneurship;

small and medium enterprises (SMEs)

Middle East, internet diffusion and use in , 104–107, 105 f, 107 f

Middleton, J. , 158

migration patterns, Caribbean , 220–221, 240nn18–19 Ministry of Labor of Chile , 146 Miroudot, S. , 311n5

Mohan, Preeya , 17, 73

Mohnen, P. , 38–40, 46, 52, 65n3, 66n9, 73, 75

Montalbano, Pierluigi , 21, 29, 285 Moretti, E. , 51

Mourshad, M. , 138 Mueller, G.C. , 50

multinational fi rms, innovation investments , 42, 47–53, 48–49 t Murakami, Y. , 310n3

Murnane, R.J. , 162n7

N

Narula, R. , 111 Naudé, W. , 218

Navarro, J.C. , 40, 52, 55, 76 NCST , 73–74

necessity entrepreneurship , 24, 174 Nelson, R.R. , 7, 58

Nenci, Sylvia , 29, 285

Network of Indicators of Science and Technology (RICYT) , 65n2 Nicaragua

banking products, access to , 257 t fi nancing constraints , 260 t fi nancing structure in , 255 t fi rms surveyed , 11 t informal sector fi rms , 12 internet diffusion and use , 106 on-the-job training , 143 t, 144 f Nightingale, P. , 173, 200n1 Noguera, G. , 311n5 Nugent, S. , 226 Nurse, K. , 74, 220, 221

O

OJT . See on-the-job training (OJT) Oliner, S.D. , 103

Ongena, S. , 248

on-the-job training (OJT)

appropriation problems, effect on , 139–140, 140 t, 146, 151, 153, 158, 163n17

(16)

on-the-job training (OJT) (cont.) benefi ts of investing in , 138–139 data and methodologies for , 14,

142, 144, 162nn3–4 determinants of , 149–154

fi nancing , 139–140, 147–149, 149 f, 160, 161 t

general vs. specifi c contents of , 139, 146–147, 147 f , 159–160 growth and performance, impact on ,

21–23, 137–142, 154–159, 156 t heterogeneous effects of , 157–158,

157 t

high- vs. low-skilled workers, impact on , 145–146

incidence and intensity of , 142–145, 143 t, 144 f, 145 f

incidence of vs. non-LAC countries , 143–145, 144 f, 162n5 information problems related to ,

139, 140 t

managerial practices and , 140, 140 t, 162n2

market failures affecting , 139–140, 140 t, 162nn1–2

policy recommendations for , 160–161

public fi nancial support for , 147–149, 149 f, 161 t, 163n12, 323

research on, need for , 160–161 returns for LAC manufacturing

fi rms , 154–159, 156 t social returns on, lack of data on ,

142, 143

technological innovation, impact on , 139–140, 140 t, 319–320 training received by occupation

category , 145 f

training vs. not training, impact of , 149–154, 150 t , 151 t , 152 f , 160

wages affected by , 139–143, 162n1 Oosterbeek, H. , 141

ordinary least square (OLS) regressions , 25, 173, 180, 182 Organisation for Economic

Co-operation and Development (OECD) , 14, 38, 40, 41, 73, 75, 137, 253

Ortiz, E.A. , 74

P

Padilla, A.J. , 249

Pagano, M. , 249, 250, 279n3 Pagés, C. , 2, 6, 32–33n6, 32n3, 137,

168, 211, 212, 218 Pakes, A. , 7, 42, 75 Panama

banking products, access to , 257 t banking systems in , 251

credit access and fi nancing constraints , 251, 260 t fi nancing structure in , 255 t fi rms surveyed , 11 t innovation activities , 41 internet diffusion and use , 106 on-the-job training , 143 t, 144,

144 f, 149 f, 161 t productivity performance , 4 f young fi rms , 174, 197 t, 200nn8–9 Pangerl, Siobhan , 25, 137, 207, 245 Paraguay

banking products, access to , 257 t female entrepreneurs , 200n10 fi nancing constraints , 260 t fi nancing structure in , 255 t fi rms surveyed , 11 t informal sector fi rms , 12

on-the-job training , 143 t, 144 f, 149 f productivity performance , 4 f young fi rms , 174, 175, 197 t,

200nn9–10

(17)

Park, A. , 310n2 Peirano, F. , 53 Pellegrino, G. , 168 Pérez, P. , 40, 76 Peru

banking products, access to , 257 t banking systems in , 251–252 credit access and fi nancing

constraints , 250–252, 260 t fi nancing structure in , 255 t fi rms surveyed , 11 t foreign-owned banks , 252 on-the-job training , 143 t,

144 f, 149 f

productivity performance , 4 f young fi rms , 174, 175, 198 t,

200nn8–9 Petersen, M.A. , 248, 272 Petkova, N. , 310n4 Petrin, A. , 155, 164n23

Pietrobelli, Carlo , 1, 29, 137, 245, 285, 303, 317

Pisano, G. , 7 Pischke, J.S. , 162n1 Piscitello, L. , 310n4 Polder, M. , 120

Presbitero, Andrea , 27, 131n7, 188 t, 245, 258

product or process innovations in Caribbean fi rms , 19, 80 f, 83 t in Latin American fi rms , 39–40,

47–53, 65n3, 65n8, 175 in young fi rms , 175

PROTEQin data , 14, 25, 33n13, 207–208, 211, 214, 219–221, 225, 235

public fi nancial support

fi rm development , 9–10, 9–10 t innovation activities, Caribbean ,

19, 322

innovation activities, Latin America , 16, 52, 322

on-the-job training (OJT) ,

147–149, 149 f, 161 t, 163n12, 323

purchasing power parity (PPP) , 13, 210

Q

Quince, T. , 171

R

Rabbiosi, L , 310n4

Rabellotti, Roberta , 27, 131n7, 188 t, 245, 258, 303

Raffo, J. , 40, 55, 76 Ragousssis, A. , 311n5 Rajan, R.G. , 248, 272 Rand, J. , 258

Repetto, A. , 5, 32n6

research and development (R&D) innovation and productivity,

Caribbean , 17–19, 73–77, 318 innovation and productivity, Latin

America , 14–17, 37–40, 53–56, 54 t, 318

in young fi rms , 175 Robinson, C. , 310n4 Rodríguez, J. , 141 Rodriguez-Clare, A. , 4 Roper, S. , 65–66n8 Rosas, David , 21, 137 Rosholm, M. , 141 Rouvinen, P. , 38, 39, 73

Ruprah, I. , 207, 209 t , 210, 226, 239n3 Russell, T. , 247

S

St. Kitts & Nevis

banking products, access to , 257 t economy, characterization of ,

209 t, 210

(18)

St. Kitts & Nevis (cont.) education and skill levels,

worker , 220 f

entrepreneurship in , 217–218 f fi nancing constraints , 260 t fi nancing structure in , 255 t fi rms surveyed , 11 t ICT usage in , 213 f informal sector fi rms , 12 innovation activities , 94 t, 96 t on-the-job training , 143 t sales, export vs. non-export , 215 f size of fi rms , 212 f, 239n7 Saint Lucia

banking products, access to , 257 t economy, characterization of , 209 t education and skill levels,

worker , 220 f

entrepreneurship in , 217–218 f fi nancing constraints , 260 t fi nancing structure in , 255 t fi rms surveyed , 11 t ICT usage in , 213 f

innovation activities , 9 t, 78, 78–80 t , 79–80, 94 t, 96 t

on-the-job training , 143 t sales, export vs. non-export , 215 f size of fi rms , 212 f, 239n7 St. Vincent & the Grenadines , 9 t,

94 t, 96 t

banking products, access to , 257 t economy, characterization of , 209 t education and skill levels,

worker , 220 f

entrepreneurship in , 217–218 f fi nancing constraints , 260 t fi nancing structure in , 255 t fi rms surveyed , 11 t ICT usage in , 213 f

innovation activities , 9 t, 78–80 t sales, export vs. non-export , 215 f size of fi rms , 211, 212 f, 239n7

salels . See exporting; international linkages

sales diversifi cation , 47, 50 Salis, S. , 310n4

Sánchez, I.G. , 40, 76 Santoleri, P. , 120 Saunders, A. , 120 Schiantarelli, F. , 246, 249 Schmid, J.P. , 226

Schmukler, S.L. , 251, 252 Schneider, C. , 168 Schreyer, P. , 119 Schumpeter, J. , 73

Schumpeter II regimes , 5, 23–24 Serti, F. , 310n2

services sector

banking products, access to , 256 t data limitations on , 12–13 fi nancing by fi rms , 252–261,

254–255 t

growth and performance, impact on , 5–6, 212–213

product innovation in , 40 productivity in Caribbean fi rms ,

222–225, 223–224 f , 236–238 t

Shane, S. , 170 Shapira, P. , 40, 76 Sichel, D. , 103 Sicherman, N. , 110 Siedschlag, I. , 110, 111 Sierra, R. , 226

size of fi rms

banking products, access to , 256 t Caribbean fi rms by size ,

211–213, 212 f

credit access, constraints on , 249, 279nn1–2

fi nancing by fi rms , 252–261, 254–255 t

fi nancing structure and , 254–255 t, 256 t

(19)

fi rm development, public support for , 9–10, 9–10 t

innovation activities and , 53 on-the-job training , 147–149, 147 t ,

149 f , 161 t productivity, effect on ,

211–213, 212 f

small and medium enterprises, LAC vs. Caribbean , 211–212 young fi rms , 174

skill formation . See on-the-job training (OJT)

skill shortages, Caribbean , 219–221, 220 f , 240nn16–17,

240nn20–21

Sleuwaegen, L. , 231, 240n24 small and medium-sized enterprises

(SMEs) , 253–255, 254 t, 255, 256 t, 279n9

in Caribbean , 211–212 credit access for , 248–250,

279nn1–2

growth and performance of , 24–25, 175–177, 176 f

productivity of , 178

small economies, defi ned , 209, 239n3 SMEs . See entrepreneurship; small and

medium enterprises (SMEs) Solimano, A. , 8

Soto, R. , 8 South Asia

innovation activities , 40 internet diffusion in , 104–107,

105 f , 107 f South Korea

growth accounting in vs. LAC , 2 t innovation activities , 40

TFP performance in , 2–3 Spiegel, M. , 120

spillovers, productivity and , 17, 39, 58–60, 59 t , 61 t

Stallings, B. , 246

state-owned banks, role of , 248–249, 251, 279n2

Stehrer, R. , 311n5 Stiglitz, J.E. , 247 Stinchcombe, A. , 170 Stoneman, P. , 107 Storey, D.J. , 170, 258 Strahan, P.E. , 248 Strobl, Eric , 17, 73 Stuart, R. , 170 Suárez, D. , 40, 52 Suriname

banking products, access to , 257 t credit access and fi nancing

constraints , 252, 260 t economy, characterization of , 209 t education and skill levels, worker ,

220 f , 222

entrepreneurship in , 216, 217–218 f , 221 fi nancing structure in , 255 t fi rm operation, obstacles to , 226 t ,

227, 228 f , 230 t , 231 fi rms surveyed , 11 t ICT usage in , 213 f , 214 innovation activities , 9 t , 78–80 t ,

79–80, 94 t , 96 t

sales, export vs. non-export , 215 f size of fi rms , 212 f , 239n7 Survey of Productivity and Human

Resources in Establishments (EPFE) , 14, 142, 144, 147, 162n3 Syverson, C. , 5, 8, 208, 231

Szirmai, Adam , 1, 137, 239n11, 317

T

Tacsir, Ezequiel , 14, 37, 65n4, 153 Taiwan, innovation activities , 40 Tan, M. , 110

tax rates, Caribbean , 226–227, 226 t , 227–230 f

(20)

technological adoption . See information and

communication technologies (ICTs); innovation activities Teece, D. , 7

Tekin, R.B. , 39 Teo, T.S.H. , 110

Thomas-Hope, E. , 240n21 Thurik, R. , 216

Timmer, M.P. , 311n6

TiVA . See Trade in Value Added (TiVA)

Tobit model , 43–44, 53, 91–93 Tomasi, C. , 310n2

Torrisi, S. , 111

total factor productivity (TFP) , 14 LAC relative to comparison

countries , 2–4, 2 t LAC relative to United States ,

3–4, 3 f

as measure of performance , 14 tourism-based economies , 209 t , 210,

213–214

trade . See international linkages Trade in Value Added (TiVA) , 14,

285, 288–297, 290 f , 293 t , 295–296 f

training . See on-the-job training (OJT) Trefl er, D. , 310n2

Trinidad and Tobago

banking products, access to , 257 t credit access and fi nancing

constraints , 252, 260 t economy, characterization of ,

209 t , 210

education and skill levels, worker , 220 f

entrepreneurship in , 217–218 f fi nancing structure in , 255 t fi rm operation, obstacles to , 228 f ,

230 t , 231

fi rms surveyed , 11 t ICT usage in , 213 f informal sector fi rms , 12

innovation activities , 9 t , 78–80 t , 79, 94 t , 96 t

on-the-job training , 143 t, 144, 144 f sales, export vs. non-export , 215 f size of fi rms , 212 f

Trivieri, F. , 110, 111

U

Ucbasaran, D. , 170 Udell, G.F. , 245 UNCTAD , 288, 294 United States

growth accounting in, LAC vs. , 1–2, 2 t

internet diffusion and use in , 104–107, 105 f , 107 f TFP performance in , 2 t , 3–4, 3 f ,

32n2 Uruguay

banking products, access to , 257 t banking systems in , 251

credit access and fi nancing constraints , 249, 260 t credit markets in , 251 fi nancing structure in , 255 t fi rms surveyed , 11 t innovation activities , 41

on-the-job training , 143 t , 144–145, 144 f , 145 f , 147 t , 161 t productivity performance , 4, 4 f young fi rms , 174, 175, 198 t Urzúa, S. , 141

V

Van Biesebroeck, J. , 310n2 Van de Ven, W.P.M. , 116

(21)

Van Horen, N. , 248, 250, 252, 273 Van Leeuwen, G. , 40

Van Praag, B. , 116 Van Zeebroeck, N. , 119 Vargas, Fernando , 14, 37 Venezuela

banking products, access to , 257 t banking systems in , 251–252 credit access and fi nancial

constraints , 250–252, 260 t fi nancing structure in , 255 t fi rms surveyed , 11 t foreign-owned banks , 252 on-the-job training , 143 t, 144 f productivity performance , 4 f Verhoogen, E.A. , 287

Veugelers, R. , 168

Vivarelli, M. , 39, 216, 239n10 Vuletin, G.J. , 12

W

wages , 139–143, 162n1 Wagner, J. , 214, 287 Wagner, R. , 216 Watson, Patrick , 17, 73

WBES . See World Bank Enterprise Survey (WBES)

websites, use of , 105–107, 107 f , 225 Weiss, A. , 247

Wennekers, S. , 216 Whittaker, H. , 171 Williamson, O.E. , 6 Willmore, L. , 52 Winkler, D. , 298 Winter, S.G. , 7 Wooldridge, J.M. , 302 workforce . See human capital World Bank Enterprise Survey

(WBES)

fi rms interviewed , 9 t, 77–78

methodology and data from , 10–14, 46

world fi nancial systems , 252 World Input-Output Database

(WIOD) , 289, 311n6 World Trade Organization (WTO) ,

14, 285

Y

Yang, Y. , 287 young fi rms

characteristics of , 23–25, 173–175, 200n8

credit access for , 248–249, 279nn1–2

data and methodologies on , 24, 167–168, 171–173

entrepreneurship, economic growth and , 169–171, 239nn10–12, 320

female-owned fi rms , 174, 200n10 growth and performance of , 24–25,

167–171, 175–177, 176 f , 179 t , 180–186, 181 t , 184 t , 188–199 t

innovation-related activities , 175 labor productivity , 180–182, 181 t mature fi rms vs. , 24–25, 174, 213 policy implications , 185–187 productivity, impact on , 23–25,

167–171

productivity gaps, effect of , 185

productivity of , 24–25, 175, 177–179, 178 t , 179 t

research on, need for , 167–168, 187 robustness checks , 183, 185 sales and employment growth , 24,

182–183, 184 t sales and exports , 174

(22)

Z Zambia

ICT adoption in , 105 f on-the-job training , 141 Zanfei, A. , 111

Zitouna, H. , 310n4

Zúñiga, P. , 18, 38, 45, 53, 55, 64, 74, 76, 77, 91–97, 99n2

Zwick, T. , 154, 158

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