• Không có kết quả nào được tìm thấy

Wireless Mesh Networks - Security, Architectures

N/A
N/A
Nguyễn Gia Hào

Academic year: 2023

Chia sẻ "Wireless Mesh Networks - Security, Architectures "

Copied!
184
0
0

Loading.... (view fulltext now)

Văn bản

Inquiries regarding the use of the book should be directed to the INTECHOPEN LIMITED rights and permissions department (permissions@intechopen.com). The publisher assumes no responsibility for injury or damage to persons or property arising from the use of materials, instructions, methods or ideas contained in the book. A catalog record for this book is available from the British Library. Additional paper and PDF copies are available from orders@intechopen.com Wireless Mesh Networks - Security, Architectures and Protocols.

Selection of our books indexed in the Book Citation Index in the Web of Science™ Core Collection (BKCI). Since 2005 he has worked as an instructor at the Engineering Faculty at Palestine Technical University (Kadoorie), Tulkarm, Palestine. Key Management Techniques for Wireless Mesh Network by Vinh Truong Quang and Hoa Le Viet.

Rejina Parvin

Introduction

Wireless mesh network 1 Architecture

Wireless mesh networks (WMN) are communication networks that include radio nodes in which the nodes are arranged in a mesh topology. Wireless mesh networking is the architecture that provides the least amount of low-cost mobility within a radio range. The wireless mesh network provides stability when compared to other network topologies rather than adding or deleting nodes in the network.

To provide Quality of Service (QoS), a wireless mesh network is used in telecommunication for voice communication. US military forces use wireless mesh networks to connect their devices for field operations. Wireless mesh network shows better performance even for large number of nodes in the network.

Protocol layer and functionalities

  • Physical layer
  • MAC layer
  • Routing layer
  • Transport layer
  • Application layer
  • Issue in network performance

Dynamic routing is the ability of the node to predict the shortest available path between source and destination [6]. Complexity is higher in hierarchy maintenance and is directly related to system performance. SWSNs consisting of static nodes with static topology also share some of the security challenges of MWSNs due to some limitations associated with the sensor nodes.

Security in wireless sensor networks is in a growth phase, mainly due to the unavailability of efficient security schemes, but most of the existing schemes are not suitable due to the peculiarity of WSNs. Security in wireless sensor networks is in a growth phase, mainly due to the unavailability of efficient security schemes, but most of the existing schemes are not suitable due to the peculiarity of WSNs. Due to the heterogeneity of the WSN nodes, different protocols had been developed for different WSNs depending on the nature of the nodes and the application.

Classification of WSNs protocols Routing protocols can be classified into

  • Hierarchical routing protocol
  • Multipath routing protocol
  • Location-based routing protocol
  • Quality of service (QoS)-based routing protocol
  • Mobility-based routing protocol

For efficient data delivery, multipath routing protocol generates a multipath (primary and secondary paths) from the source node to the destination node. Location-based routing protocol routes data based on the distance between the source and destination nodes. QoS-based routing protocol balances efficient data delivery of the data to the sink node with some predetermined QoS metrics [17, 20].

Mobility-based routing protocol is a lightweight protocol that ensures data delivery from source to destination nodes. Tree-based efficient data distribution protocol (TEDD), scalable energy-efficient asynchronous distribution (SEAD), two-level data distribution (TTDD) and data-MULES are some of the examples of mobility-based routing protocol. Another example of the mobility-based routing protocol was the protocol proposed by Kim et al.

Security and privacy issues in WSN

  • Security and privacy issues
  • Security and privacy solutions

In this protocol, the total energy used for transmission is unmatched by the performance of the routing algorithm. WSN is more vulnerable to this attack because its nodes send data to the base station most of the time [29]. In a security-critical network, this type of attack can be catastrophic for network functionality.

Their QoS routing protocol takes advantage of the numerous transmission capabilities of multi-class nodes. The message packet σ contains the signature δ, corrupted data Pp, pseudonyms of the primary source node Fsn and the destination node Fds. Destination node extracts the two-way distribution parameter of SN and βsn and calculates the destination of the used perturbation P.

Conclusion

A secure and energy-conscious routing protocol for optimal routing in mobile wireless sensor networks (MWSNs). An efficient point-to-point security solution for multi-hop routing in wireless sensor networks. In: Paper presented at the IEEE International Conference on Intelligent Autonomous Agents, Network and Systems; 2014.

In: Paper gepresenteerd op de IEEE International Conference on Computer Science and Automation Engineering IEEE Transactions; Manchester; 2012.

Related work

  • Physical and datalink layers
  • Network layer
  • Transport layer and above

Design of networking protocol

  • Datalink layer
  • Network layer

The authors do not extend beyond the session layer (or higher layers) as they are not the subject of the research. The authors present the following communication protocol and then use simulations to verify the effectiveness of the protocol. Given the feasibility of implementing this particular protocol on typical aircraft, the authors use the exact same band as the SSR (i.e., the UHF band) to allow for SSR antenna redirection.

Allow the packet size in the exchange season from the data link layer to the physical layer to be close to 256 [octets]. If we expect 2 kbps to be offered as a data link layer channel, each packet will take 1 s to transmit. It manages the "lifetime" of the packet to reduce the load on the network layer.

Feasibility study of physical, datalink, and network layers

As the smallest metadata, the authors include a "magic" code up to 4 [octet] specifying the character of the packet, a time code (4 [octet]) and an aircraft code (4 [octet]). To confirm the feasibility of the protocol discussed in the previous section, the authors developed the model described below and performed a simulation experiment. However, the information received by aircraft a i is different from x ij - the authors refer to it as y ij.

If the information received and transmitted by aircraft a k is z k , where z k = ij c i x ij , there would be an explosive increase in the amount of data if the authors did not use an artificial attenuation term (decay) ijk , as in this report the data arrival rate statistically based on Eq. 4) and (5), the authors performed computer simulation with the following parameters: . Theoretically, the damping term dyke in Eq. 4) should be equal to or less than 1, and the authors assumed that dyke = 1 in the simulations to clarify the experimental results.

Investigate the degree of data transmission per time step using multi-hop communication via neighboring aircraft wherever the communication

The probability of successful communication is based on Eq. 2) according to the interval between planes. If the data did not reach a 0 in a single time step, and if it reached an n where n ≠ 0, then a n tried to send the data a 0 in the next time step. Investigate the data transmission rate per time step using multi-hop communication via neighboring planes wherever the communication is.

Investigate the entire range of hops for every time step using multi-hop communication via neighboring aircraft wherever the communication

Experimental results

Investigate the data rate per time step using multi-hop neighbor plane communication wherever there is multi-hop neighbor plane communication where the communication path is unstable. Explore the full range of hops for each time step using multi-hop communication via neighboring plane, wherever multi-hop communication via neighboring plane the communication path is unstable. In Figure 2, the horizontal axis represents time steps and the vertical axis represents the number of aircraft (up to 1000).

The horizontal axis and the vertical axis in Figure 3 represent the generations and the total range of hops required for data transmission.

Figure 1 shows results of Simulation 1. Figures 2 and 3 show the results of  Simulation 2.
Figure 1 shows results of Simulation 1. Figures 2 and 3 show the results of Simulation 2.

Discussion

Conclusion

Simulation program

  • Shamir’s secret sharing scheme (SSSS)
  • Secret sharing-based key management (SSKM)
  • Hierarchical scheme with transitory master key (HSTMK) Filippo Gandino et al. [8] introduced a new key management scheme called
  • Real-time key management algorithm
    • Real-time clock key management
    • Proposed security protocol
    • System implementation
    • Results
  • The protocol
    • KeyGen(π)
    • Enrollment (UK, SK, X)
    • Verification (UK, X′)
  • The protocol analysis in WSNs
  • Conclusion
  • Analysis of existing methods
    • User authentication based on validation of secret knowledge
    • User authentication using devices
    • Biometric user authentication
    • The use of traditional methods of authentication for remote user access Overall lack of traditional authentication methods for remote user access is the
  • User authentication method based on knowledge
  • User authentication algorithm based on checking his knowledge If the user tries log in into the information system from his device, it can
  • Methods and means of implementation
  • Conclusions
  • Fundamentals
    • The directed mmWave wireless channel
    • Beam training
    • Control channel
  • Initial access and mobility management
    • Synchronization and cell search
    • System information
    • Random access
    • Mobility management and handover
  • Resource allocation 1 Interference characteristics
    • Beam-searching and concurrent transmission
    • Association
    • Spectrum sharing
  • Conclusions
  • The radiative transfer equation
    • Inherent optical properties
  • Solving the radiative transfer equation: Monte Carlo simulation The Monte Carlo name was coined by Nicholas Metropolis [7]. The modern
    • Photon path length
    • Absorption events and scattering angles
    • Temporal dispersion and the underwater channel bandwidth .1 Temporal dispersion
  • Simulation
    • Clear and coastal waters .1 Simulation results
    • Harbor waters
    • Validation of simulation results

In the proposed method, the private key is created first instead of the master key. Authenticating the name of the logged in user is one of the steps in the logon process. Username authentication using authentication devices is based on the uniqueness and confidentiality of the information contained in the device's memory.

As such, information can be used, for example the personal (secret) key of the user's electronic signature. 4. Retrieve information about the user's interests from the database created when registering in the system. Then the interests of the authenticated user are compared to the interests stored in the database.

This threshold can be set by the administrator of the information system where he registers the user. After categorization, the entire list of URLs of interest to the user is compared with his interests in the DB. This method increases the reliability of user authorization results compared to password authentication.

One of the models proposed to describe the SPF is the Henyen-Greenstein phase function (HG). Comparison of the FF and the Petzold average phase function over all scattering angles and for small scattering angles. Comparison of the FF and the Petzold average phase function over all scattering angles and for small scattering angles.

Figure 4 describes how our protocol works.
Figure 4 describes how our protocol works.

Merlin Sheeba

  • System configuration
  • Problem definition
  • Fuzzy differential evolution
    • Proposed optimization control flow model
  • Energy aware nearest cell association (EANCA) algorithm
    • Performance metrics
  • Simulation results and discussion
  • Summary
  • Microstrip antennas: types, applications, and design methodology 1 Types and applications
    • Microstrip antenna design methodology
  • Fractal and polar transformations 1 Types and applications
  • Fractal and polar-shaped microstrip antenna 1 Koch fractal microstrip antenna
    • Wearable teragon antennas
    • Polar microstrip antenna

The transmission cost and error rate of the deployed network are estimated and their performance analyzed. As the size of the network increases the load on the network, the transmission power and distance between the router and the client will vary in different cases. An example of the membership graph of the input variables CR, S and the output variable F(x) using the triangular membership function is shown in Figure 2.

The categorical value for Dmin includes {short, medium, long, very long}, the categorical values ​​for TL include {low, medium, high}, and the categorical value for Pt includes {low, medium, high}. ratio between the average number of data packets received by the destination node and the number of data packets sent. Analysis of the proposed antennas has been done through computational simulation of full-wave methods.

The results obtained for the resonance and radiation parameters of the antennas are presented. Pre-fractal patch antennas: (a) image layouts; (b) parametric analysis; (c) neuromodelling; (d) Image comparing the overall dimensions of the built-in patch antennas: rectangular and prefractals. The increase in patch size through the use of teragon shapes causes a reduction in resonant frequencies.

The gain (dB) simulated in resonant frequencies of the portable pad antennas is shown in Figure 12b. Various shapes have been used in the development of the microstrip antennas; the pole transformer is the option in this case. We observed that the increase in patch perimeter through the use of polar interaction causes a reduction in resonant frequencies, similar to the fractal behavior.

Application of the three-dimensional finite-difference time-domain method to the analysis of planar microstrip circuits.

Figure 1 shows the fuzzy DE control flow model for optimizing the transmission cost (TC) metric
Figure 1 shows the fuzzy DE control flow model for optimizing the transmission cost (TC) metric

Hình ảnh

Figure 1 shows results of Simulation 1. Figures 2 and 3 show the results of  Simulation 2.
Figure 1 shows results of Simulation 1. Figures 2 and 3 show the results of  Simulation 2.
Figure 4 describes how our protocol works.
Figure 4 describes how our protocol works.
+7

Tài liệu tham khảo

Tài liệu liên quan

First, we define and measure trade facilitation using several different indicators (port efficiency, customs environment, regulatory environment, and e-business usage) rather than